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A Comparative Analysis between House Arrest, Electronic Monitoring, and Shock Probation - Essay Example

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The essay aims to address a two-fold objective to wit: to define and discuss house arrest, electronic monitoring, and shock probation, and to compare and contrast house arrest, electronic monitoring, and shock probation and determine their effectiveness…
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A Comparative Analysis between House Arrest, Electronic Monitoring, and Shock Probation
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A Comparative Analysis between House Arrest, Electronic Monitoring, and Shock Probation The essay aims to address a two-fold objective to wit: (1) to define and discuss house arrest, electronic monitoring, and shock probation, and (2) to compare and contrast house arrest, electronic monitoring, and shock probation and determine their effectiveness. A Comparative Analysis between House Arrest, Electronic Monitoring, and Shock Probation Introduction Criminal sanctions are imposed to offenders as part of their criminal responsibility. During the 1800s, the rise of science and the development of positivist criminology have led to the development of more humane probation (Clear, Cole, & Reisig, 2009, p. 66). According to Regoli& Hewitt (2010), probation is defined as a sentencing option in which an offender is released into the community under the supervision of a probation officer (p. 313). The concept of probation started in 1841 when John Augustus became the first probation officer who assisted people convicted of crimes to avoid further criminal behavior. Because of positive results, the state of Massachusetts implemented the probation statewide in 1880. The used of probations was authorized by the federal courts and hired their first probation officers in 1925. Definition and Discussion A. House Arrest House arrest is defined as a court-imposed order in which the offender is legally confined to his or her own residence for a specific amount of time (Siegel& Bartollas, 2011, p. 106). Offenders are not allowed to leave their home except for work, school, and medical treatment matters. Offenders are also required to stay in their homes during evenings and weekends. House arrest ranges from several days to several years, depending on the sentence and degree of criminal liability. House arrest is administered either in probation department or judicial sentence monitored by surveillance officers. In line with these are electronic monitoring, fines, community obligations, etc. that are used in conjunction with house arrest. House arrest is used to punish an offender or to ensure offender’s appearance in a trial and to protect the community. B. Electronic Monitoring Electronic monitoring is used in conjunction with house arrest for individuals who commit more serious offences and to ensure that offenders comply with the house arrest orders. Electronic monitoring refers to the use ofelectronicequipment to verify that the offender is at home or in a community correctional center (Siegel & Bartollas, 2011, p. 107) and initiated in any of the four basic types of systems, namely: active phone line systems, passive phone line systems, remote location monitoring, and global positioning system (GPS). The active phone line systems has continuous signal from offender to the central office unlike passive phone line systems which lack continuous signals and involve random phone calls. Remote location monitoring involves a pager and voice verification method while GPS equipped the offender with a GPS receiver and microprocessor, limiting the distance of the offender to the receiver in only 100 feet. C. Shock Probation Clear, Cole, & Reisig(2009) defined shock probation as a sentence in which the offender is released after a short incarceration and resentenced to probation.It is also called as split probation (p. 78). The principle gives the offender the feeling of incarceration to shock them to abide the law and produce an individual reluctant to commit another crime or probation violation. Comparison and Contrast House arrest and electronic monitoring are both applied after a sentence. Meanwhile, shock probation is implemented during the period of release and until the court act on the case to sentence the offender to probation. House arrest and shock probation are simple and involve only the confinement of offender in the correctional facility while electronic monitoring uses high-technology equipment or gadgets for surveillance. Both house arrest and shock probation keep offender’s family relations intact and these two forms of probation are also applied in less serious cases. On the other hand, electronic monitoring is used in more serious criminal act and surveillance is needed to protect the community. Effectiveness House arrest is viewed as effective in lowering the expenditures of a correctional facility. It also gives opportunity to offenders to keep their jobs and their family relations intact. House arrest is flexible in the sense that it covers particular times of the day and controls particular types of offenders. Officers are able to make more frequent home and community visits in response to violation of house arrest orders. In an electronic monitoring, the issue in lowering recidivism is the main focal point of debate regarding its effectiveness. However, some studies found that electronic monitoring saved money and avoided new construction costs, without widening the net of social control. Electronic monitoring also reduced the likelihood of technical violations and proved to be an effective public safety alternative to prison. Shock probation is viewed as the most effective in limiting prison time, maintaining family ties, reintegrating the offender to the community, and reducing costs and populations of corrections. References Clear, T.R., Cole, G.F. &Reisig, M.D. (2009). The Punishment of Offenders. American Corrections (8th ed.) (p. 65-96) California: Thomson Wadsworth. Regoli, R.M. &Hewitt, J. D. (2010). Corrections in the Community. Exploring Criminal Justice: The Essentials (p. 312-322) Massachusetts: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, LLC. Siegel, L. &Bartollas, C. (2011). Intermediate Sanctions. Corrections Today (p. 98-121) California: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning. Read More
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