Short response#5 - Essay Example

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The result of the industrial revolution was an increase in the working class people and so the problems associated with the stresses of working came up. Many working people experienced stresses of migration to urban centers, and the economic problems associated with it. This led…
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Science as a Motor of Progress The result of the industrial revolution was an increase in the working people and so the problems associated with the stresses of working came up. Many working people experienced stresses of migration to urban centers, and the economic problems associated with it. This led to the use of scientific approaches to solve these social problems. Science in this case became the motor for progress in Europe especially since it became the basis of the studies involving psychology, criminology, mental illnesses, and other social problems. Scientists like Sigmund Freud and Albert Einstein helped in the launching of modernism via the use of scientific and irrational methods that were new at that time (Hunt 753).
This modern era was characterized by new revolutionaries in science as scientists continued their research and discoveries. According to hunt, these discoveries came to shake the foundation of traditional scientific certainty as they posed a challenge to the widely accepted knowledge regarding the nature of the universe (754). At first, these new discoveries were not accepted well, but later on, people came to see their significance as they transformed the foundations of science. According to Porter, many achievements in the modern scientific sector made it easy to for medicine to be regarded as the motor and measure of progress (71). Medicine was used a solution to many deceases affecting humans and also for booting the immunity of the body. Additionally there was the introduction of contraceptives that helped in keeping in check the population growth rate. All these features promoted the development and progress of the society as avoiding diseases and controlling birth rate meant a more stable and developed society.
Many European philosophers seemed to doubt the ability of traditional science to solve the social problems that kept coming up in the modern society. There was this belief of positivism that promoted the use of scientific methods to uncover enduring social laws. However, challengers of positivism pointed out that the ever changing human experience was not a basis for constant or enduring social laws (Hunt 753). In addition, the progress of science had its problems in cases of medicine whereby diseases seemed to be more challenging than anticipated. This made critics to question the role played by medical science in improving health, and if it played any role at all (Porter 72). Furthermore, the use of birth control stirred a lot of controversy as many critics saw it in a different light. Since the fertility of middle class women was falling at a high rate, Hunt notes that critics saw this as a negative impact on society mainly because of the long-term effects (744).
Science indeed was a motor for progress in Europe mainly because it spearheaded the development of medicine and other inventions that supported modern life. The working class seemed to be the most affected by the revolutions of the 19th century as seen by the change in their lifestyles. Modern ideas that were used in scientific research and discoveries in fields such as medicine, physics, technology all contributed to a better society. Despite the fact that many critics did not concur with the scientific ideas, they all in the end came to agree to the benefits of science in making the society better. According to Walker, women were the major beneficiaries of this era as they got to take control of their reproductive health (794). All in all, science was the major contributor towards the progress of Europe because without it, it is possible that Europe would have taken a very different direction after the Industrial and the French revolution.
Works Cited
Hunt, Lynn. Making of the West, Volume II: Since 1500: Peoples and Cultures, Volume 2. New York: Bedford/St. Martins, 2012. Print.
Porter, Roy. “The Rise and Fall of the Age of Miracles.” History Today. November 1996: 69-75. Print.
Walker, Patrick. The Modern Age. 792-888. Print. Read More
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