Critical Analysis of the First Crusade as a Response to the Church Reform in the 11th Century Critical Analysis of the First Crusade as a Response to the Church Reform in the 11th Century Introduction The Crusades, primarily, can be considered as the European nations’ responses to the Christian authority’s call for expeditionary war against the Muslims…
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Scholars commonly attempt to mark crusades as the Europeans’ military expeditions against the Muslims who were then occupying the holy places in Jerusalem. In this sense, there were about four major crusades which were led during this period. But the most successful one of all these crusades was the First one in which the Crusaders could successfully occupy Antioch and Jerusalem, two most important cities of the Muslims.1 But the First Crusade was important not only for its success but also for its historical, sociopolitical and cultural background. Indeed, though on the surface level, it was a response to Pope Urban’s (II) call, it was, in reality, the reflection of an age which had experienced heavy conflict between Monarchy and Church. During the 11th century, the conflict between the State and the Church began with the Investiture Controversy which was a “dispute between King Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII concerning who would appoint bishops”2. Beside this state-church conflict, the whole religious system got divided into a number of groups and subgroups. But the most important religious schism was the East-West Schism. Scholars claim that along with other socioeconomic and cultural factors, the state-church conflict and the East-West Schism played a crucial role in preparing the plot of the First Crusade. Moreover, this was the only one successful whereas all of the following crusades ended in smoke. In this paper, I will discuss what factors work behind the materialization of the First Crusade and why it became successful whereas the Second Crusade failed. Though it is commonly believed that the first Crusade was mainly the result of Common Europeans’ spontaneous response to Pope Urban’s (II) call, it was basically the outcome of the reformist soul of the early 11th century as well as a reaction to other contemporary sociopolitical and religious events of that era.3 A close scrutiny of the historical contexts of the First Crusade will necessarily show that it was related to the sociopolitical and religious zeal and the state-church conflict in a number of ways. So, the First Crusade was more of a sociopolitical event than a pure spiritual response of the common people. In fact, Pope Urban’s religious stance tends to hide other sociopolitical aspects of the First Crusade. This religious trend of the crusade further tends to hide the fact that though Pope Urban could motivate common people by manipulating their religiosity, his call for the Crusade was not purely religious. Rather it was Pope Urban’s attempt to consolidate his power over the state.4 In fact, due to the lack of any primary document on Pope Urban’s intention behind the First Crusade, the event remains open to interpretation. Historians’ interpretations about the drives of the First Crusades are based mainly on three points: a. the 11th century religious reform movement, b. the Seldjuk’s or the Muslims’ threat which the Eastern Roman Orthodoxy was facing during those days, c. consolidation of Papacy’s hold on the state’s power as well as on entire European Christendom. A critical analysis of the factors behind the First Crusade will show that all of these three causes had played equal role in organizing the First Crusade. Seldjuk’s Threat in the East as a Primary Cause of First Crusade Some historians often attempt to underestimate the
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(“The Crusades Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3750 words”, n.d.)
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(The Crusades Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3750 Words)
“The Crusades Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3750 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/history/1476015-the-crusades.
II. Background and objective of the Crusade In 1095, the Byzantine Emperor Alexius Comnenus I sought the help of the pope to send in help to keep the Seljuk Turks at bay. The council of the Church responded in November 1095 with a decree of using war to advance its religious fervor.
CRUSADES AGAINST CHRISTIAN PRINCIPLES…………..6 V. BIBLIOGRAPHY…………………………………………………7 THE ADVANCEMENT OF Crusaders and the Church Introduction Crusades from 11th to 13th century still remain as a blemish in the history of the Church despite repeated apologies.
At the start, the only missions that were regarded as Crusades were those to Jerusalem, for example, the Holy Land and territories linked to it. Later on, however, efforts made against Muslims; moreover, Heterics and pagans came to be recognized as Crusades.
For instance, Madden starts with the parallel between the former President Bush’s remarks about Islam and those of the crusaders and proceeds to the persuasive but too evidently engaged apologetic speech1. The topic seems to require far more cautious approach: modern morality is itself socially constructed and cannot be the yardstick for the measures of Medieval morality.
This paper discovers Saladin. These were common among the Christian and Muslim forces who sought assert their claim across the land during the middle ages. Such confrontations were leader by great leaders of either side guided by religious beliefs and drive for power. Cities and towns of religious interest both to Christians and to Muslims.
The main aim of crusades was to recover the holy lands from Islam invasion so that it can be retained in Christian hands due to their high regards of Jerusalem. The crusaders other aim was to reduce the influence of the Ottoman empire through all means thereby the accomplices of crusades were granted the status of martyr in the event of their death during crusades.
This was instigated by Robert of Couron in France and Oliver of Cologne in Germany and with the declaration of Fourth Lateran Council in 1215; Innocent III laid down the plan of recovering the holy land. After the death of Innocent in 1216 Pope Honorius III took up the mantle and "organized crusading armies led by Leopold VI of Austria and Andrew II of Hungary.
A Crusade is a special war or military expedition carried on under that standard [Cross] is the characteristic symbol of its object either of conquest or vengeance or of the conversion of people to the Christian Faith by force of arms.” (MacIntyre 75). This provides the general definition of the term as it has evolved to become.
The first crusade took place in 1905 and it was focused on reclaiming Jerusalem, the location in which Jesus was crucified, from the Muslims (Crawford 1). It was organized under the watch of pope Urban
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