The Crusades Name: Instructor: Task: Date: Introduction The war between Christians and Muslims has been there since ages ago. This makes it hard to solve the current struggles that increase religious intolerance and hatred among the adherents of the two factions (Runciman 1987, p.176)…
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For example, the First Crusade occurred between 1095 and 1099 with its origins being France. However, it was not an official Papal Crusade but was organized by individuals such as Robert Curthose, Baldwin of Bouilon, Hugh of Vermandois and Tancred de Hauteville among others (Runciman 1987, p.182). The First Crusade had several goals such as the need to battle the Turks and also persecute the Jews. Additionally, the group murdered Muslim inhabitants and captured Antioch to restore Christianity in those areas. Contrastingly, defense came from Muslims and Jews who engaged the aggressors in defending Jerusalem. A majority of the participants came from backgrounds that opposed the rise of other religions (Galgano et al 1993, p.123). Consequently, this increased the hatred for Muslims and Jews with participants of the First Crusade such Raymond of Toulouse and Bohemond of Taranto insisting on restoring lost territories taken by religious competitors. Notable personalities of the First Crusade included Robert Curthose and Baldwin of Bouilon who came from Italy and France respectively with armies to reclaim the lost cities now dominated by the Jews and Muslims. They also led a crusade army that fought the Muslims and took control of all cities. First Crusade leaders and their followers gained significantly in the raids that persecuted the Jews and Muslims. They equally gained by capturing lost cities such as Antioch and Jerusalem and later established the Principality of Antioch and the County of Edessa. Conversely, the losers entailed the Turks who lost Antioch and the Jews who initially had defended Jerusalem. In terms of influences, the First Crusade had a lot for others that followed. Though negative, it resulted to revenge by Turks against the crusades under the name Crusade of 1101 (Kidner et al 2007, p.145). It was followed by the Second Crusade that equally failed to secure major cities under the leader of Bernard of Clairvaux. Therefore, the lasting historical legacies of the Crusade include a disharmony between Christians and Muslims that continues to affect humanity through acts of terrorism and religious intolerance from both sides. Northern crusades A political crusade, the Northern crusades happened between 1193 and 1290. In this crusade, revenge was organized against pagans found in Northern Europe led by Pope Celestine III. Another leader killed in battle was Bishop Berthold of Hanover who led the crusaders against pagans. The stated goals of the Northern crusades encompassed the pacification of pagans and also converting the remaining ones to Christianity (Runciman 1987, p.189). Similarly, the group protected Germany’s trade and commerce from external threats. Northern crusade’s participants came from various backgrounds. Pope Celestine III, for example, was the leader of the Catholic Church and felt the urge to convert all pagans into Christianity. On the other hand, Bishop Berthold of Hanover who died in the war against Livonian Pagans came from Germany and believed in the power of Christianity in the entire Northern Europe (Runciman 1987, p.213). The pagans, however, came from Livonia while others from Prussia where another crusade was led by Pope Honorius III. The notable personalities in this crusade were Bishop Berthold of Hanover and Pope Celestine III who led a campaign to kill or convert all pagans. They also ensured that
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The Crusades The Crusades were the holy wars of the Christians to take back lands forcibly taken by the invading Muslims. The research focuses on the origins of the Crusades. The research includes the political, economic, and social aspect of the contest. The Crusades theme focuses on the evolution of the crusades (an evolution over time) to curtail the rapidly expanding Muslim empire.
Jerry Ciacho November 20, 2011 The Crusades The Crusades played a big role in the history during the Middle Ages also known as the Dark Ages. This series of holy wars between the medieval Christians and Muslims impinged on many Europeans. Even children were involved and lost their lives in the long battle of this religious war.
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The Crusades of the Middle Ages were pilgrimages armed preached by the pope or the spiritual authority of Christianity (Cockburn and Clair, 2004). They were also military expeditions in order to deliver Jerusalem from Muslims. However, the term "crusade" has been extended to other military actions, whose aim was not to extend religion. Imperialism is a strategy or a political doctrine of conquest which relates to the formation of an empire or domination. Imperialism of the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century is no longer linked to the idea of an empire spanning the world known.
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