Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Class University Date Literature Review The idea of Emotional Intelligence can be first traced on the work of Thorndike (1920) who theorized that intelligence is not only confined to academics but also includes emotional and social component (qtd…
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This was later provided by Howard Gardner when he articulated his theory of multiple intelligences categorizing it as intra personal and interpersonal intelligences within the framework of multiple intelligences (Gardner, 1983). His concept on intrapersonal intelligence or the capacity and competence to understand one’s self and apply it effectively in its relationship to others and in life in general as articulated in his concept on interpersonal intelligence will serve as the basic building block upon which future theorists will build their research on (Carmeli & Josman, 2006). . Gardner also proposed that there are eight types of intelligences that includes “spatial, musical, intrapersonal, interpersonal, bodily—kinesthetic, naturalistic, and the traditional academic intelligence: linguistic and logical-mathematical. . . Later, Riggio, Murphy and Pirozzolo (2002) propose these multiple forms of intelligence are possessed by effective leaders and allow these leaders to respond successfully to a range of situations” (Mandel and Pherwani, 2003 pg.388). Further, recent researchers reported that this emotional intelligence is in fact a requisite for leadership and executive role as what all leaders in recent organization are exemplying. It was however Peter Salovey and John Mayer who formally developed the term “emotional intelligence” which landed its model in the field of Psychology that researchers later expanded on of which we still use today. The first version of the model was defined as the as the “the ability to monitor one’s own and other’s feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and action” (Salovey and Mayer, 1990 qtd. In Lyusin, 2006: 55). It was interpreted as a complex construct consisting of three types of abilities; (1) the identification and expression of emotion as; (2) the regulation of emotions; and (3) the application of emotional information to thinking and action (Lyusin, 2006 pg. 55). This was later clarified by Mayer and Salovey that emotions contain information on how people or objects could connect at them (Mayer et al., 2001). The ability of connecting these emotions has led Salovey and Mayer to identify the four components of emotional intelligence which are “(1) the identification of emotions; (2) the use of emotions to increase the effectiveness of thinking and action; (3) the understanding of emotions; and (4) the guiding of emotions. In summary, these components relate to the emotions of others and the individual’s own self. To summarize, emotional intelligence is therefore, “defined as the ability to perceive accurately, appraise, and express emotion; the ability to access and/or generate feelings when they facilitate thought; the ability to understand emotion and emotional knowledge; the ability to regulate emotions to promote emotional and intellectual growth” (Mishra Mohapatra, 2010 pg. 54) to influence others to achieve an objective. There were also other models of EI that was different to this previous model. Most notable was the work of Daniel Goleman (1995) which were more based on the earlier works of Salovey and Mayer (1990) only that he added other components to it such as zeal, persistence, and social skills and brought together cognitive abilites and
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It also consists of perceptions of people in the surrounding and analyzing their emotions in order to manage relationships and have an efficient workforce. According to (Goleman, 1995) there are five important characteristics of Emotional Intelligence; self- awareness, self-regulation empathy, motivation and having good social skills.
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In this regard, this paper will be divided into three parts. The first part will have a brief overview of emotional intelligence by providing its definition, its importance, and related models or frameworks. The second part will discuss
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