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Overcrowded roads in California: Transportation - Research Paper Example

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Transportation in the United States: Policies, Challenges, and Various Approaches Introduction The overcrowded roads in California and other major cities in the United States need no charts or detailed formulas in order to be exposed. Congestion is tangible and salient; it affects every social class, every segment of the economy, and every aspect of one’s daily life…
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Overcrowded roads in California: Transportation
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Download file to see previous pages It is therefore imperative to have a thorough understanding of these approaches and traffic jam models. Thus, the paper deals with the theory of kinetic waves, principles underlying the traffic jam behavior, the classic car-following models, Optimal Velocity Model (OVM), and the Time-Oriented CA (TOCA). Similarly, it is essential to prove into the transportation policies of the nation as well and so the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) is elaborately discussed in the paper. The paper also deals with the relation between transportation costs and the economics of commodity markets and throws light on how transportation affects sustainability and environmental justice. The results of the study pinpoint that the current transportation system is unsustainable and needs to be refocused to a long-term sustainable model. This necessitates a comprehensive policy that promotes an accessible and reliable system of public transit that can withstand the drawbacks of the current system. Approaches to Traffic Flow and Traffic Jam Modelling Nagel, Wagner & Woesler (2003) deal elaborately with the various approaches to traffic flow and traffic jam modeling. ...
estimated that there was “no flow when there is no car on the road, p = 0, and there is also no flow when there is a dense jam, p = Pmax” (Nagel, Wagner & Woesler, 2003, p. 682). Thus, there takes place free flow regime at low densities whereas high densities would contribute to a congested regime. Even though traffic jams cannot be directly observed from the fundamental diagram, it is evident that traffic jams, once made, remain stable and prevent the flow of traffic. It is also possible that there can be phase transitions from free flow to synchronized, from synchronized to the jammed phase and from free flow to jammed. However, when it comes to traffic measurements measurement of density unlike flow or velocity requires space averaging too. Similarly, large errors of density estimate can be resulted from even small errors at low velocities. Field measurements can also get varied due to spatio-geometrical factors such as upstream or downstream roads, inflows or outflows. Usually, jam occurs when there are more vehicles added to the upstream front than that are being released at the downstream front. The spatial extension of the traffic block can be understood by the theory of kinetic waves. However, it is also necessary to take into account such basic ingredients as excluded volume, inertia, and slow acceleration and at times it is also essential to add further complexity to create real-world forecasts (Nagel, Wagner & Woesler, 2003, p. 684). Intuitive jam stability occurs when more vehicles join at the queue at the upstream end when the first vehicle starts to move at the downstream end after the traffic jam. This can contribute to a cluster of vehicles of velocity zero in the traffic jam queue and in such cases the outflow from the jam will be a fixed quality ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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