Choices: _____ 1 – 4 _____ 5 – 8 _____ 9 – 12 _____ 13 and up For these questions, I suppose it would be appropriate to use the interval level of measurement being the standard survey rating scale for the sake of ranking data and to figure the precise differences between units of measure based on predetermined intervals. Out of the results or answer data gathered, the extent of the person’s sociability may be inferred as the behavioral information obtained through the first question would indicate that internet users with large number of hours to spend on social networking most likely possess several friends to communicate with compared to those with less hours of internet surfing. Similarly, an inference of whether an individual is mature or immature may be drawn according to the estimates provided in the second question. Sources: Bluman. Elementary Statistics (A Step By Step Approach). 8th edition. “Types of Survey Questions.” Retrieved from http://gk12.harvard.edu/modules/SurveyQuestionTypes.pdf on July 10, 2012. (2) Data Presentations Histograms or bar graphs are widely utilized as ‘quality improvement tools’ by representing data through varying rectangular column heights in which the frequencies projected from along the vertical axis are plotted against horizontal range of equal intervals. Through these fundamental features, analysis of product quality comes with ease for manufacturing reports depend upon histograms to keep track of how often defects occur within a specified timeframe.
Hence, the charting process of detecting product defects may be carried out by first counting a number of data pints with reference to the number of defective units found, summarizing the collected data on a tally sheet, and identifying the range. Construction of histogram proceeds with determining interval width out of the known number of intervals. Then, the counting and plotting of the number of points in each interval makes the crucial step that explicates how such histogram can be taken significant advantage of in evaluating whether or not the standard quality for a product is achieved. Other useful statistical graphs include frequency polygons, ogives, Pareto chart, time series graph, and pie graph. Sources: LeanMan. “Histograms:: Bar Charts:: Quality Improvement Tools.” HubPages. Retrieved from http://leanman.hubpages.com/hub/Histograms-Bar-Charts-Quality-Tools on July 10, 2012. “Basic Tools for Process Improvement.” Retrieved from http://www.saferpak.com/histogram_articles/howto_histogram.pdf on July 10, 2012. (3) Probability In the business world, the chief role of probability is signified in evaluating risks derived from financial and decision-making terms. Since probability, by simple definition, refers to the chance of an event taking place, then one concrete instance of its application in manufacturing industry would be on determining the regional capacity and requirement for production. This particularly aids manufacturers to locate strategic sites on which to establish a firm or plant such as if a region is figured to have spots rich in oil or gas reserves then a petroleum refinery may be set up within the area to target optimum refined yields with confidence that this condition is favorable for revenue increase. Hence, there is high probability of generating several large volumes of refined petroleum products, increasing the likelihood of achieving maximum profits for the company that, through probability