Urban Regeneration can be defined as the comprehensive and integrated visions and actions which lead to the solution of urban problems and which seek to bring about a lasting improvement in the areas of social, economic, physical and environmental condition…
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These partnerships can be explained as the sustained working joint ventures between these agencies which produce additional social benefit which could not have been produced by a purely public, commercial or charitable venture. (Mackintosh, 1992). It is a multi agency approach to pool all the resources (knowledge, skill, finance, experience, expertise etc.) to achieve the goals of urban regeneration.
New East Manchester Limited, established in October 1999, the second Urban Regeneration Company is a partnership between national (English Partnerships), regional (North West Development Agency) and local government (Manchester City Council), with local communities playing a full part. There are two core objectives to East Manchester's regeneration:
Creating sustainable communities through making East Manchester an attractive place to live and work with a range and quality of facilities and services that the local community needs and through making sure that economic benefit is secured for local people and ensuring that East Manchester maximizes the contribution it can make to the regional national and global economy.
The regeneration plan involved constructing new homes, a town city center, sport city, a business park, integrated transport system and achieving an educational attainment above the city average. (http://www.manchesterpartnership.org.uk/page/23,51/
Necessity for evaluation of urban regeneration partnerships
Evaluation is an analysis of the objectives, inputs (processes), outputs and outcomes of any initiative. As urban regeneration partnerships involve the resources of many different agencies but with an important aim, a critical analysis of the partnerships working and activities is necessary to enable the partnership to develop and be more effective. The evaluation made at the developmental stage of an activity gives back information and guidance in to an intervention on how improvements can be made (if required), evaluation done at the process stage tells how the intervention is working and at the outcome stage analyses the effectiveness of the intervention. (EIU, Evaluation Guides: evaluation Guide1 - definition and common concepts). Evaluation of partnership working helps to understand the impact of joint working in regeneration programs and how to achieve maximum effectiveness of the initiatives. (Partnership development, www.sqw.co.uk/services/partnership-development.php)
Principles behind an evaluation
Any evaluation activity should
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(Urban Regeneration Partnerships Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 Words)
“Urban Regeneration Partnerships Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/sociology/1517108-urban-regeneration-partnerships.
Urban Regeneration Practice: 'Eco-City'
Over the last two decades, various measures have been taken to render cities environmentally and socially sustainable. This has resulted in the new phenomenon known as ‘ecocity’. In the first decade of the twenty-first century, the phenomenon appears to have become increasingly global and mainstream, with international “recognition of the scale and severity of climate change, and rapid urbanisation particularly in the developing world” (Joss 2010: 239).
Role of Local Authorities in Urban Regeneration
Urban regeneration is the process of re-developing land in certain areas which is in moderate or high urban land usage. This may include the demolition of historic structures, relocation of businesses or people and various other measures to change the structure of an area.
Wang and Murie (1999, p971) explain that housing inequality in countries such as China was minimal in the past since the level of consumption was very low. Housing reforms in Britain came into the picture due to intrusion of market forces which affected changes in the availability of houses and thus, changing the housing consumption levels.
There often exists considerable distance between residential areas and commercial, retail, or employment areas. This has resulted in commuting problems of traffic congestion or economic exclusion. Social exclusion has also resulted from this difficulty of access, and this has occurred especially in towns such as Ballymun which have only one entrance/exit (Williams and Shiels, 2001, p.
Despite public bodies being in possession of large chunks of land, they nevertheless lacked the necessary capital and will to aid in its redevelopment (Church 1988).
As such, the private sector was only in possession of limited land, leading to a market insensitive land control.
Rural and suburban migrations have implied an implicit pressure on the land available for urbanization .As a result of which urban extents of main cities are expanding fast into suburbs and rural areas causing more dislocation and accompanied problems.
Stadium at the center of town was supposed to help by way of playing ground, so as to keep all sections of society physically fit and well.
There was fierce resistance from the affected citizens and local social help groups. The project was also resisted by environmentalists on the ground that the slums were interspersed with large tracks of woods which were to be cut down for effective implementation of the project.
An amalgamation of 20 individual programmes, the SRB seeks a collaborative approach to tackling urban and rural deprivation by bringing together the public, private, community and voluntary sectors to form local partnerships which bid for resources from the fund (Tilson et al., 1997).
Several contributing factors have been identified inclusive of rising geographical inequality. In the coming years it is suspected that external influence shall "life tough for struggling cities" (Wood, 2004), the contributing reasons include rising demand for highly qualified workers, lower skill levels of the regeneration towns, and the best educated evacuates London i.e. failure of retention schemes.