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With regard to the fact that depression is often caused by reduced activity of the brain chemical such as serotonin and dopamine, these antidepressants often work by improving the activity of the neurotransmitters. For example antidepressants of the class monoamine oxidase inhibitors work by preventing the enzymatic degradation of monoamine neurotransmitters while at the same time inhibiting the main functions of monoamine oxidase. These actions often results in increased neurotransmission since the increase the concentration of neurotransmitters in the brain. Generally antidepressants such as SSRIs work by inhibiting and preventing the reuptake of serotonin and this eventually leads to increased activity of serotonin in the main brain synapses. On the other hand TCAs and MAOIs have a number of properties that help boost the levels of serotonine in the body. There are also many other common antidepressants which achieve their therapeutic actions by reducing the reuptake of norepinephrine as well as influencing the activity of various nerve cell receptors. The therapeutic application of SSRIs and the other antidepressants or antipsychotic drugs often come with both their benefits as well as a number of risks associated with them. Some of the benefits of these drugs include the fact that they are significantly effective in the treatment of anxiety disorders, depression and many personality disorders. On the other hand some of the limitations and risks of using antidepressant drugs such as SSRIs include low efficacy as well as a number of adverse effects on some patients such as agitation, reduced sex drive, erectile dysfunction, headaches, nausea and increased cases of suicidal thoughts. (Barlow and Durand, 37). With regard to the potential risks of using antidepressant and antipsychotic drugs, psychologists should always use a sound rationale in the prescription of these mental health medications. In this regard, these drugs should only be prescribed when necessary under the supervision of a medical practitioner. 2. Fetal alcohol effect (FAE) and fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) Although the diagnosis of Fetal Alcohol effect and fetal alcohol syndrome are almost similar, Fetal Alcohol effect is generally less serious and its diagnosis is based on a number of both mental and physical effects on the unborn baby as a result of persistent prenatal exposure to alcohol (Kelly and Streissguth, 144). On the other hand, the diagnosis of Fetal Alcohol syndrome is primarily based on the physical manifestations of the effects of alcohol consumption by the mother during the pregnancy. Generally some of the common physical manifestations hat are often used in the diagnosis of Fetal Alcohol syndrome include low fetal weight and abnormal facial characteristics such as small eyes that are often wide apart, small head, flat face and thin upper lips. The characteristics of Fetal Alcohol syndrome are particularly more evident in infants whose mothers consistently consumed huge amounts of alcohol during the first trimester when the formation of the facial structures is still undergoing. The fact that some infants born to drinking mothers may not display observable physical or mental characteristics of alcohol effect does not necessarily mean that alcohol exposure did not have any detrimental effect on them during the prenatal exposure. This is particularly with
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Currently, only a few psychologists are evaluating their selves by considering particular school of thought. In the modern world, it is still possible to get pure psychoanalysts or behaviorists, though most psychologists manage their works in accordance to their areas of specialties and perspectives.
According to philosophy, current regulation on drugs is unjustified and that some drugs that have been made illegal are treated like alcohol or tobacco. Therefore, instead of criminalizing drugs, they should be made legal. The main argument for making drugs illegal in society is because of the harm inflicted on the second party. The use of drugs among people is not a new phenomenon. It has been part of human life.
This has led to increase in the number of teen and adult drug users and addicts. The use of drugs in society often leads to the ruin of its users’ lives, and it has adverse effects on families and friends of the user/addict as well as entire communities (Hammond, 2008).
In the Debate.com website, it was revealed that more than74% responded in the affirmative to the question: ‘should all drugs be legalized?”; while only a meager 26% responded negatively (Debate.com, 2013). The major reasons of advocates for its legalization range from it being the most promising move to prevent drug abuse, eroding the black market for trade of illegal drugs, and asserting that prevention of legalization is more costly.
Drug abuse has been defined by different authors in different perspectives, and according to Hart (4) it is described by factors such as why, where, what, when and how a certain drug is used. All drugs, classified as either harmful or otherwise have varying importance to the society.
Sex and Drugs in Psychology.
The use of drugs in the field of psychology is not a new practice. While sex based therapy may not be as commonly talked about in mainstream media, its use in psychotherapy is not a new concept either. What is reality, however, is that there are individuals on both sides of the issue in terms of the advantages and disadvantages of the use of sex and drugs in psychology.
The purpose of this literature review is to identify behavioral consequences of drugs abuse. Some of the common behavioral outcomes of drugs abuse are violence, aggressiveness, paranoia, hallucinations, addiction, impaired judgment, impulsiveness, depression and disturbed sexual behaviors.
From there, discussion of the current drug problem – the way in which it is currently legislated and enforced, the success or failure of this solution, its contribution to rising crime statistics and the theories regarding the effects legalization would have upon these issues – will be undertaken.
ver form it comes, spitting out the juicy substance formed from saliva and tobacco regularly, and as such, the addictive substance that attracts smokers to cigarette is passed into the circulatory system. The smokeless tobacco can be in form of a chewing tobacco, which is less
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