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Substance misuse - Essay Example

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SUBSTANCE MISUSE By Lecturer: Institution of Affiliation: City and State: Date: Substance Misuse Part One: Psychoactive substances are those substances that act on the nervous system to change the consciousness condition, regulate perceptions and alter moods of a person (Kassel 2010, p…
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Substance misuse
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Download file to see previous pages The world health report indicates that about 10% of the total burden of disorder results from use of psychoactive substances (WHO, 2004, p. 7). Much of the problems or burdens attributive to substance misuse is the results of numerous health and social problems in the society. Many psychoactive substances users use these drugs for varied reasons such as personal gratification, for pleasure, need for adaptation to the situation, curiosity, harsh realities and need for social interactions. Continuous use of psychoactive substances can contribute to tolerance, which is the need to increase drug amounts or dosages in the body and it can also lead to dependence, or addiction. Therefore, biological factors such as genetic predisposition, family history, withdrawal effects, reinforcing and biochemical factors play significant roles in substance abuse. Psychoactive substance use is a complex phenomenon; thus a tangled interaction of factors contributes to the need for using psychoactive substances frequently. Varied factors play significant roles in substance use susceptibility such as the psychological makeup including the self-esteem depression among others (Goodman, 2006, p. 91). Biological factors, environmental conditions, as well as, the drug availability are among the aspects that can contribute to substance use. El-Guebaly (2003, p. 766) argues that understanding substance abuse or addiction is vital because it can enable an individual to understand the way the brain functions and the way certain substances have the potential for abuses. It can also enable an individual to understand the effect of substance abuse in case biological differences exist among individuals in their susceptibility to abuse drugs. Psychoactive substances interact with the brain and alter communication between the brain cells. The brain cells play significant roles of communicating with one another through neurotransmitters, which are brain chemicals that transmits information. Some psychoactive drugs are capable of aping the effects of neurotransmitter while others many interfere with the normal function of the brain through blocking; thus altering the way transmitters functions (Kassel, 2010, p. 35. The human brains are structured in an effective way with high specialized brain functions; thus psychoactive substances may alter the functions or activities of brain because different psychoactive substances act in the brain mechanisms in dissimilar way to generate their effects (Peterson and McBride, 2002, p.75).These substances can bind to dissimilar receptor types; thereby decreasing or increasing the activities of the neurons through diverse of mechanisms. On the other hand, the psychoactive drugs can contribute to differential behaviors or differential rate of tolerance development or differential withdrawals symptoms or it may produce short-term or long-term brain effects. In addition, psychoactive drugs may alter the brain function and this will contribute to the substance dependence, which is a disorder of altered brain functions. These substances may impact the normal functioning of the brain mechanism because the result of the brain system is its actions and thoughts. Brain disorders can contribute to highly complex behavioral systems to an individual (Kassel, 2010, p. 122). The brain can experience varied problems such as upsetting brain injuries and syndromes or the brain may suffer from other as problems such as epilepsy, stoke and other neurodegenerative ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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