Rapid urbanization is a problem that confronts the modern world. In the past, it used to be an indication of progress and development. Rapid urbanization now comes with multiple costs that governments can no longer choose to ignore. …
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te cities and market towns; over migration leading to growth of mega-cities with poor economic bases and poor municipal capacity to provide minimum basic services. The case of Africa Nelson (2006: 2) likewise challenges the conventional assumption that rapid urbanization is indicative of progress. He cites the case of Africa as evidence that urbanization cannot be linked to development. This is because urbanization in Africa was the result of inequitable allocation of state resources, which were in turn driven by global market processes. As a consequence of this, the rural areas suffered deeply. Rural poverty and rural hunger had spiked up. (Nelson, 2006: 3). To quote Nelson, “Resources directed toward agriculture have been very small and of these most have been directed toward large-scale farming of export crops such as tobacco, not only causing environmental damage but also food shortages and impoverishment of small farmers. (Nelson: 3)” But these have long term consequences too. Because the rural areas are the suppliers of food for the entire country, impoverishing the rural areas diminishes capacity to produce food and ultimately lead to food prices going up. In Africa, more and more of its citizens are migrating to the cities, creating a rural to urban diaspora that, as described by Cheru, “take on more of the qualities of their rural hinterlands: increasing importance of urban agriculture by disobeying restrictive land-use controls—paving the way for more diverse use of urban space; the spontaneous growth of illegal settlements and of petty commodity production; and the maintenance of rural economic links and regional and cultural identities on the part of urban migrants. (page 7)” Although this is true, there is also validity in the assertion that...
We look at one of the core policies of the Brazilian government: the Conditional Cash Transfers (CCT). Brazil was the first country in Latin America to implement CCT’s and it was meant as a poverty alleviation measure to complement the measures being taken by the World Bank and the IMF so that Brazil can reap the benefits of globalization. Advocates have repeatedly claimed that apart from creating impact on extreme poverty, children’s well-being and women empowerment, the CCTs have also been advantageous to implementing governments. For one, the scheme is market neutral, boosting local economy without compromising producer’s prices, unlike food subsidies. Two, its computerised data systems have ensured accurate information on prospective and actual beneficiaries, minimizing targeting errors as well as clientelism and corruption. Three, its implementation cost is relatively low, with Latin American CCTs pegged at less than 1% of the Gross Domestic Product.
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The history of gentrification commenced with Ruth Glass as the first person to coin it. Glass describes the term as the alteration of the residential areas of the city from working class to middle class. The middle class was replaced by the elite urban class in the mid-nineteenth century.
Lack of adequate food, housing, infrastructure and employment opportunities was rampant in the major American urban areas in the late 1800s and 1900s. The dearth of such basic amenities resulted in much hunger and homelessness among most American urban residents.
2011, pp. 79-80). Tokyo, Shanghai, Karachi, Mumbai, Seoul, Beijing, Istanbul, Moscow, Bangalore, Singapore, Jakarta, Kuwait and others are just a few examples. This paper is an attempt to document the growth of Asian cities over the past few decades in terms of their population, economic growth, social and housing structure.
The implication of cities in urban ecology as emergent phenomena will be evidenced through the resultant actions of air pollution, traffic congestion and urban sprawl. Furthermore, the effect of human activities on the urban ecosystem will be immense as energy fluxes are redistributed with effects such as deforestation and acid rain formation.
Race and ethnicity are important in the rural poverty phenomenon and social welfare and other efforts to try to assist the poor appear to have a limited and temporary impact. Charitable handouts cannot last forever
John consider city as achievements and failing of humanity ; at first it is shaped by human and then it shapes human lives. In 2030 he expects the population to cover two thirds of the globe (Reader, 2004).
People urbanize due to their
countries have not yet provided information sufficient to ascertain their true human development indices, current information holds that a total of 88 countries of the world fall under the medium human development bracket (that is, those with HDI less than 8 but greater than 5)
The city constitutes major heritage Sites, for instance the Carioca Landscape in Rio is one the world`s most anticipated heritage site, as states by the UNESCO (Mitchel, Marshall & Comptom 2011). Vicente
The special issue on global slums of Mute magazine inspired the author to write the Planet of Slums. The author provides analysis of the social, environmental and economic state of cities situated in the global South and creates