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Growth of Poverty and Slums in Contemporary Cities - Essay Example

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Rapid urbanization is a problem that confronts the modern world. In the past, it used to be an indication of progress and development. Rapid urbanization now comes with multiple costs that governments can no longer choose to ignore. …
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Growth of Poverty and Slums in Contemporary Cities
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Growth of Poverty and Slums in Contemporary Cities

Download file to see previous pages... te cities and market towns; over migration leading to growth of mega-cities with poor economic bases and poor municipal capacity to provide minimum basic services. The case of Africa Nelson (2006: 2) likewise challenges the conventional assumption that rapid urbanization is indicative of progress. He cites the case of Africa as evidence that urbanization cannot be linked to development. This is because urbanization in Africa was the result of inequitable allocation of state resources, which were in turn driven by global market processes. As a consequence of this, the rural areas suffered deeply. Rural poverty and rural hunger had spiked up. (Nelson, 2006: 3). To quote Nelson, “Resources directed toward agriculture have been very small and of these most have been directed toward large-scale farming of export crops such as tobacco, not only causing environmental damage but also food shortages and impoverishment of small farmers. (Nelson: 3)” But these have long term consequences too. Because the rural areas are the suppliers of food for the entire country, impoverishing the rural areas diminishes capacity to produce food and ultimately lead to food prices going up. In Africa, more and more of its citizens are migrating to the cities, creating a rural to urban diaspora that, as described by Cheru, “take on more of the qualities of their rural hinterlands: increasing importance of urban agriculture by disobeying restrictive land-use controls—paving the way for more diverse use of urban space; the spontaneous growth of illegal settlements and of petty commodity production; and the maintenance of rural economic links and regional and cultural identities on the part of urban migrants. (page 7)” Although this is true, there is also validity in the assertion that...
We look at one of the core policies of the Brazilian government: the Conditional Cash Transfers (CCT). Brazil was the first country in Latin America to implement CCT’s and it was meant as a poverty alleviation measure to complement the measures being taken by the World Bank and the IMF so that Brazil can reap the benefits of globalization. Advocates have repeatedly claimed that apart from creating impact on extreme poverty, children’s well-being and women empowerment, the CCTs have also been advantageous to implementing governments. For one, the scheme is market neutral, boosting local economy without compromising producer’s prices, unlike food subsidies. Two, its computerised data systems have ensured accurate information on prospective and actual beneficiaries, minimizing targeting errors as well as clientelism and corruption. Three, its implementation cost is relatively low, with Latin American CCTs pegged at less than 1% of the Gross Domestic Product. ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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