An essay "Political Underdevelopment in Africa" reports that millions of Africans live in extreme poverty and go hungry each passing day. This is a sign of poverty and its root causes are political underdevelopment that results in poor leadership and governance structures…
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Africa, Democratization, political underdevelopment Political Underdevelopment in Africa Introduction There are daunting challenges currently facing the continent of Africa. The continent experiences the highest proportion of its population living in conditions characterized by extreme poverty. As a result, Food 4 Africa (n.d.) notes that the continent has not met any of the global United Nations goals agreed upon in 2000 called the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). As a result, millions of Africans live in extreme poverty and go hungry each passing day. This is a sign of poverty and its root causes are political underdevelopment that results in poor leadership and governance structures. Besides, the levels of illiteracy in the continent of Africa are the highest. This is a result of failure to achieve the MDG on free universal primary education for all with the number of school going children not attending school is the highest in this world (Food 4 Africa, n.d.). In addition, the African continent witnesses most of the world’s conflicts arising from political underdevelopment and unequal distribution of resources. Therefore, despite the growing interaction of societies and economies of the world, Africa witnesses political underdevelopment in comparison to the other continents. It's in two different ways with the first one being a result of a large uneducated mass while the other one resulting in a migration of educated elites to other nations. According to Food 4 Africa (n.d.), the African continent has failed in the achievement of the MDG on universal primary education. As a result, Food 4 Africa (n.d.) notes that the “number of girls out of school in Africa is the highest in the world (23m).” In this case, this uneducated population is not aware of even of their most basic of human rights and as a result, they fail to demand and agitate for good governance in most of these African countries. Conversely, the educated Africans who leave their countries of birth to seek employment opportunities in other adopted countries result in a problem referred as brain drain. This problem affects Africa most since the best minds do not work towards the objective of developing their countries. Indeed, the Economic Commission for Africa [ECA] (2000) estimated that 27,000 highly qualified Africans left Africa for Western countries between 1960 and 1975. On the other hand, the International Organization for Migration (2003) notes that more than 100,000 qualified Africans lived and worked in countries within the European Union and North America with the number set to rise each year (as cited in Ndiaye, Melde, & Ndiaye-Coic, n.d.). In this case, these skilled and qualified Africans leave their countries of birth and fail to participate in the demand for good governance and ultimately lead to political underdevelopment in the continent. Colonization is another social issue, although, with a political aspect in it, that influences political underdevelopment in the continent.
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“Political Underdevelopment in Africa Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/sociology/1443363-political-underdeveloment.
Table of Contents
Chapter 1. Underdevelopment and Corruption in Africa 4
Chapter 2. Underdevelopment and Corruption in Nigeria 16
Chapter 3. Critical Analysis 20
Chapter 4. Conclusion 27
Many centuries of domination and exploitation followed, until the end of the nineteenth century when the former colonies started to gain their independence, partly through revolt and resistance, and partly because the European powers were exhausted and both militarily and economically, and severely weakened after two World Wars.
The author states that the decisive democratic transformation by South Africa has been a source of inspiration for civilization. Only a few analysts predicted such radical progress, considering the bloody and long history of the country against apartheid. Today, many parts of the African continent and across the world are experiencing civil wars.
"A 'scramble for Africa' took place in the late 19th century, when Britain, France and Germany competed to carve Africa into colonies. Today corporations from the U.S., France, Britain and China are competing to profit from the rulers of often chaotic and corrupt regimes" (Leigh & Pallister 2005, par.
Whereas the average per capita income in the industrialized world stands at over $27,000, in Africa the figure is just over $500. The implication is not just that the developed countries are, on the average, 51 times richer than Africa but that at a modest GDP growth rate of 3%, a figure which most African countries have been unable to attain, it would take Africa 120 years to arrive at the current developmental status of the industrialized countries (Obadina, 2008).
According to the paper political corruption is a malaise that has infected governments since the Roman Empire as power corrupts. The damage inflicted by corrupt officials reflects on the believability of government, and impacts the populace, with the degree of the foregoing dependent upon the extent of corruption ingrained in its leadership and institutions.
It also has s a low standard of living, and an undeveloped industrial base. They have low per capital income, low capital formation and widespread poverty. It is slightly difficult to understand poverty in Africa as it is hugely endowed with vast natural
??countries that lack the essential capacity and/ or will to fulfill four sets of critical government responsibilities” which include fostering an environment conducive to sustainable and equitable economic growth; establishing and maintaining legitimate, transparent and
Herbst says that it is quite hard to have major reforms and increase the states’ capacity without having to rely on wars as a means to ratchet up the extractive ability of a state. Instituting key reforms when the state is running normally is difficult.
For the past three decades, the growth rates of African nations have been negative. In 1980’s, the annual per capita Growth Domestic Product growth was -1.3% and declined to -1.9% in the 1990’s (Allen &
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