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The Navy has been maintaining the maritime security until recently when their activities are being downsized by the introduction of Private Maritime Organizations. Factors such as reduced spending on the military by armed forces in developed nations, availability of fewer people to enlist and smaller forces available for counter-piracy. In addition, increased use of military robots (UUVs, UAVs, USvs), concentrated in the Asia Pacific region and increased reliance on private maritime security companies to defend themselves will reduce the role and capabilities of the military in the future (Klein 2011, p. 23).
The insecurities in the marine have increased in this current century more than the other centuries because of the technological advancement. Hijackers have advanced the weapons that they used to improve their piracy works. The Private maritime operations were seen to adapt quickly to having modern weapons to fight the terrorists and the pirates. It is one of the reasons as to why it has attracted many employers along the coast.
For example, the West Africa region has suffered theft, and it has increased since 1990s. The hijacking of cargo is intense in the Bight of Benin in Lagos, Ivory Coast, and Gabon. The hijackers are usually targeting the ships that have petroleum goods and sell the stolen petroleum products at low prices. Kidnapping activities are intense to the South of the Niger Delta Region, in Bight of Bonny. Maritime security operations should be put in place so that the West region can be transporting the petroleum safely to the market. Nigeria’s economy depends on the oil sales (Klein 2011, p. 24). Therefore, there is much need to enhance security in the marine area to ensure safety and to reduce casualties in case is of an attack. Today, the PMOs are at the forefrontofgiving security to the navigators and to
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According to the research findings, it can, therefore, be said that the functionality of DMZ is similar to a proxy server, as the workstations configured in DMZ interact with the public networks. Furthermore, the most significant advantage of a DMZ is that it protects the local area network domains by segregating the network layer.
Under the general rules of the Maritime law, a ship or the vessel owner is responsible for providing a sea worthy vessel. In this sense, the ship or the vessel owner is required to exercise due diligence, through ensuring that the vessel or the ship the owner is releasing to the sea is well manned, equipped and supplied, to ensure that the ship or the vessel remains seaworthy for the whole duration that it is meant to be in the sea2.
The results of security operations and anti insurgency operations are presented and recommendations for the security companies for the operations in hostile regions like Iraq are given.
The expatriate security companies from Western Countries in hostile areas like Iraq are a result of volatile situation that demands security for private organisations, government offices as well as public installations.
Food security refers to “when all people at all times have access to sufficient, safe, nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life” (WHO, 2013). Food security is, therefore, build on three major attributes: sufficiency, safety and nutritive value and include both economic and physical access to dietary and preference needs of the people.
It has specifically dealt with International Maritime Organization (IMO), Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA), and Marine Accident investigation Branch (MAIB). It extends to explore the codes of practices that govern shipping in an effort to prevent
Therefore, if a foreigner ship-owner of an arrested vessel presents him/herself before the court of proceedings and deposits a security to bail a vessel upon which an action in rem has been taken, he is deemed to have submitted himself to the jurisdiction and the proceedings
Risk methodologies generally provide laid down procedures or steps used to determine and manage the occurrence of unpredicted events. There are various risk assessment methodologies available and include:
1). Moreover, Adams (2009) argued that sustainable development involves increasing the economic capability of a given region or country without necessarily causing harm to the environment. Harm is caused to the environment when unnatural
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