Individual Differences and Personality Theories - Essay Example

Comments (1) Cite this document
Summary
The human personality is a wide sphere of knowledge that cannot be categorically tied down to a specific definition. It refers to an attempt to capture and summarise the human essence. Seen from the two parts of the word - person- ality - it could be described as the science of describing persons; the differences, uniqueness and similarities that make up individuals of the human race (Burger, 1997, p.6)…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER91.9% of users find it useful
Individual Differences and Personality Theories
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Individual Differences and Personality Theories"

Download file to see previous pages Some people are anxious, some are risk-taking; some are phlegmatic, some highly-strung; some are confident, some shy; and some are quiet and some are loquacious. Understanding these differences between people and the underlying factors responsible for human actions has been one of the core areas of psychology. Numerous theories have been propounded, over the years, from the first cohesive theory of Sigmund Freud, all in a bid to explain personality and the reason for human differences. The purpose of this essay is to take a critical look at two of these theories - Sigmund Freud's Psychodynamic Theory and Carl Rogers Phenomenological Theory - contrasting their strengths and weakness, to demonstrate how each fare in the light of the other, and how they separately explain individual differences in the human race
Psychodynamic theories started with the works of Sigmund Freud (1856-1936), who was born in the Czech Republic but later moved to Germany, with his family, when he was young, and then later to Vienna, where he spent the most part of his life. Freud, a trained neurologist, wanted to find explanations for the severally varied and numerous psychological conditions prevalent in his time which seem to lack physical cause, and was influenced by the work of the scientist von Helmholtz and secondly, by steam power, which was the predominant technology of his time (Freud's Psycho Dynamic Theory, 2006).
Von Helmholtz under whom Freud studied was involved with physics, physiology and psychology, this coupled with the fact that steam power occupied almost every part of the daily life then, shaped the beginning of Freud's theorising. He became interested in the laws of thermodynamics, essentially, the thermodynamics of steam power and thus sought similarities between thermodynamics and the human personality. Freud therefore utilized an analogy of thermodynamics to explain his theories of psychodynamics.
The fist law of thermodynamics; energy can neither be created nor destroyed, but can be converted from one form to the other, was the predominant law guiding Freud psychodynamic theory. To demonstrate this to be true with human personality, Freud adopted Darwin's assumption that emotion is a form of physical energy (Ritvo, 1990) and thus argue that psychic energy can neither be created nor destroyed, but only transformed from one form to the other. This served as the basis for his assumption that the bulk of an individual's personality is shaped from childhood experiences (Myers, 1986).
According to Freud, the human personality can be categorised into three distinctive parts; the id, ego and superego, he used thermodynamic as an extended metaphor to explain this division. The id was described as our biological needs and drives, such as hunger, thirst and sex. According to Freud's analogy, the id provided energy for the system just as fire provides energy in thermodynamics. Freud described the super ego as the societal rules, our voice of conscience and compares it to the lid on the apparatus that contain the water to be converted to steam. The ego, on the other hand, is the conscious mind that contains an individual's thoughts, judgements, feelings and memories (Myers, 1986; Ziegler 2002).
Thus in ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Individual Differences and Personality Theories Essay”, n.d.)
Individual Differences and Personality Theories Essay. Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/psychology/1528214-individual-differences-and-personality-theories
(Individual Differences and Personality Theories Essay)
Individual Differences and Personality Theories Essay. https://studentshare.org/psychology/1528214-individual-differences-and-personality-theories.
“Individual Differences and Personality Theories Essay”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/psychology/1528214-individual-differences-and-personality-theories.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (1)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
ao
aokon added comment 9 months ago
Student rated this paper as
At first, I thought 9 of pages is too much for such a topic. But now I see it could not be done smarter. As the author starts you see the depth of the subject. I’ve read all at once. Perfect research

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Individual Differences and Personality Theories

Personality theories

...? Personality Theories A of the Significant Criticisms of the Rorschach Test During the last decades, the Rorschach test has been identified to be widely executed as personality test by the clinical psychologists. Most of the psychologists mainly use this particular test in order to examine the emotional functioning along with the personality characteristics of an individual or a people. The test is highly effective for clinical psychologists in order to distinguish personalities that exist within individuals or groups. One of the significant criticisms of the Rorschach test is that while working with children, the...
3 Pages(750 words)Assignment

Personality Theories

...Submitted Personality Theories My Extrovert and Agreeable Friend Extrovert person are those who enjoy being in a group, energetic, and having the positive emotions. They want to be a spirit of the gigs and parties without thinking of being the center of attraction, and they are also the talkative type who does much of the talking even in the exposure of other people. On the other hand, on being an agreeable person, they are the people who are sensitive to other's feelings and emotions wherein they serve as the heart of the group on which they are known to be considerate, helpful, friendly, generous, trustworthy, honest and decent (Answers.com). I have several close...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Individual Personality

...How Far can it be argued that a person's personality is determined at birth Introduction In this essay I will argue that despite the advancement in psychology, it is not possible to predetermine an individual personality at birth. The below discussion will do critical analysis of the theories of personality with reference to Freud, Erickson and Skinner making arguments against the mentioned theories. Personality psychology deals with the studies of personality and individual differences, which makes all human beings a different person. Even though we consider ourselves individuals, but the personality theorist are not interested just in similarities and dissimilarities. They are more concerned about the psychological structure... of the...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Individual Theories

...by engaging in crimes, some yield to adverse conditions of these factors while others do not. As a result, adolescent’s motivation to crime primarily depends on an individual’s personality and not environmental factors. Some adolescents are therefore motivated to commit crimes because of their compromised personality traits while others, who may be facing similar environmental conditions, are not motivated to commit crime because of good personality traits (Sharma, 2004). High dependence on personality traits as an adolescent motivator to crime, as opposed to the teenagers’ environment is supported by individual theories...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Personality theories

...learn behaviors through the process of socialization. Socialization leads provides an opportunity to for people to interact, and thus learn how various individuals behave. This facilitates exchange of ideas and experiences and with time might cause a shift in ones behavior. Moreover, through socialization, peers have an opportunity to learn different kinds of behavior from one another (Shaffer, 2009). For instance, a person who interacts with humble people learns to remain humble while another that interacts with arrogant or chest thumping individuals tend to become boastful and arrogant. c.) What do you think Kelly would have said about Skinners...
5 Pages(1250 words)Assignment

Personality and Individual Differences

...of lessening the work (Funder, 2001). Classical Test Theory tends to ignore individual response patterns and estimates a person’s entire vocabulary by measuring performance using a small sample of words. Words are considered to be random replicates of each other hence individual differences in total vocabulary size are approximated from observable differences on the selected small sample (Funder, 2001). The Person Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (r) is then used to compare the degree of covariance existing between the samples with the variance existing within samples. The increment of words in the samples leads...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay

Personality Theories

...of Staats behavioral repertoires in development of individual’s personality. Lastly, the paper explores if American culture fails to provide adequate support for personality development at any stage. A cumulative analysis of these theories and their real life application would assist in developing their thorough understanding. a. Introduction Personality development is a much explored area in the field of psychology. Researchers from different schools of thought have focused on transitions that individuals go through during the course of life and examine influence of external and internal factors on these changes. Given...
4 Pages(1000 words)Term Paper

Personality Theories

...Reaction paper of the module 9 December Reaction Paper Walter Mischel expresses his disagreement on trait theories by challenging the cross-situational consistency of traits. I do not trust traits theory as I do not believe that there are any unconditional stable characteristics in any person. A person can be very out-going when facing one’s friends while being shy and quiet with strangers. Similarly, how a person reacts to a certain situation at the age of 25 differs considerably from his reaction to the same situation when he is 55 years old. Another factor that negates the trait theories is individual...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Personality and Individual Differences

...Personality and Individual Differences al Affiliation) Personality and individual differences The article focuses on assessing personality of hypercompetitive individuals based on Horney’s theory of neurosis. The data utilized in her study was obtained form 160 university men and women. The subjects were assessed using various personalities’ inventories. The finding of the study indicated that hypercompetitive individuals were high in aspects of sensational seeking, type E orientation and high in narcissism. Hypercompetitive individuals...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Personality Theories

...Personality Theories By: Theorist Orientation Key motivational forces Model of personality structure View of personality development Sigmund Freud Psychodynamic Reform of the insane asylum Interest in abnormal psychological states Id, Ego, and Superego Personality develops through a series of stages, each characterized by a certain internal psychological conflict Carl Gustav Jung Humanistic Sexuality, importance of ones creative forces and development towards wholeness Psyche A persons behavior comes from the individuals inborn tendencies to use their minds in different ways Alfred Adler Humanistic Interested in the need to understand individuals within their social context. The need for humans to belong and feel... ...
1 Pages(250 words)Assignment
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Individual Differences and Personality Theories for FREE!

Contact Us