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Individual Personality - Essay Example

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In this essay the researcher aims to argue that despite the advancement in psychology, it is not possible to predetermine an individual personality at birth. The researcher analyzes Freud psychoanalysis theories, that define human behaviour in three distinctive terms…
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Individual Personality
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Download file to see previous pages Erickson is a Freudian ego-psychologist. He accepts Freud ideas about ego and Oedipal complex2 but he pushed instincts and unconscious out of the personality picture.
For him life is composed of eight stages, which are basically different phases of an adult's life, starting from dependence, schooling, work and ending in retirement. All of these are interrelated and it is natural for human being to think of it collectively, otherwise it will not make any sense. The stages or phases differ from country to country and culture to culture. In some culture children continue breast-feeding till later years,
while in other they are weaned off at an early stage. Similarly in Western culture independence comes early. In the East normally children are closer to parents, there is rarely independence as long as parents are alive.
In modern life, some people retire at an early and live long after retirement for decades, which is far from waiting for death but rather enjoying life. The problem is dividing human life that is composed of childhood; adulthood and old age into eight stages is making it quite confusing. It is rather not suitable to do these petty divisions and sub-divisions, while they are only phases. Erickson theory does provide a framework of life across cultures, however it cannot be applied as universal standard to applied on personality.
Skinner's system of behavior modification is based on behaviour modification as he mentions "the behavior is followed by a consequence, and the nature of the consequence modifies the organisms tendency to repeat the behavior in the future.3" The core idea is reinforcement and punishment. In simple words it is either...
This essay argues that despite the advancement in psychology, it is not possible to predetermine an individual personality at birth. The discussion, that was presented in this essay aims to conduct a critical analysis of the theories of personality with reference to Freud, Erickson and Skinner, making arguments against the mentioned theories. There is no doubt Freud psychoanalytic concepts have profound influence on personality theories in the 20th century. His psychoanalysis believes that biological and psychological forces within the family affect an individual personality. He emphasis sexual instincts than the social forces are vital elements of a person’s brought up. For Freud it was biology or the biological instincts of life and aggression, which shapes an individual personality. Erickson was not biologist like Freud; his view of human behaviour and its development of personality was based on social interaction but based on eight essential stages. His view was that social environment and biological maturation provided each individual a set of crisies that needs to be resolved. Skinner’s behaviour modification is based on action and consequences, too simplistic which may work in simple tasks, but over all human personality is too complex to be consistently modified through reward and punishment. In conclusion, modern theory of personality suggests that personality is shaped by external influences, such as family members and social and cultural environment at large, but is not given from birth. ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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