Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Go to advanced search...

Operant Conditioning - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Pierce and Cheney stated in their book on Behavioral Analysis and Learning that "Behavior Analysis is a comprehensive approach to study of behavior of organisms." An organism alters or changes the behavior so as to meet the ever changing needs of the environment…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER97.5% of users find it useful
Operant Conditioning
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Operant Conditioning"

Operant Conditioning 02 January 2006 Operant Conditioning Pierce and Cheney d in their book on Behavioral Analysis and Learning that "Behavior Analysis is a comprehensive approach to study of behavior of organisms." An organism alters or changes the behavior so as to meet the ever changing needs of the environment. The process of learning to meet the demands of the environment is called conditioning. Conditioning is basically of two types i.e., Respondent Conditioning and Operant Conditioning.
According to Pierce and Cheney "Respondent conditioning occurs when a neutral or meaningless stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus" example being salivation of dog when food is placed at its mouth. On the other hand "Operant Conditioning involves the regulation of behavior by its consequences" example being a baby being picked up on smiling at a human face.
According to the Maricopa Center for Learning and Instruction (MCLI) on WWW Operant Conditioning can be classified into reinforcements that strengthen the behavior and the reinforcements that weaken the behavior. While Positive and Negative Reinforcements strengthen the behavior, Punishment and Extinction Reinforcements weaken the behavior.
Wikipedia the free encyclopedia on WWW stated that reinforcement is a consequence that induces the behavior to occur with greater frequency, whereas punishment is a consequence that induces the behavior to occur with less frequency. Extinction is not experiencing either positive or negative consequence means no stimuli.
Wood E. Samuel, Ellen Green Wood and Denise Boyd stated that "Shaping is an operant conditioning technique that consists of gradually molding a desired behavior (response) by reinforcing responses that become progressively closer to it." Skinner used the shaping technique for conditioning complex behaviors. By adopting this technique a researcher or a trainer or a teacher or a parent reinforce the movement in the direction of desired response, thus leading to responses to achieve the ultimate goal. These series of responses which are much closer to each other are called successive approximations. Examples of shaping technique being adopted in day-to-day life are, parents using this technique to help their children learn good table manners by praising them every time they show an improvement. Teachers adopt this technique by encouraging disruptive children reinforcing them at short intervals and then gradually expect them to work productively for longer periods. Similarly this technique is adopted by a circus trainer (ring master) to teach animals such as Lions, Tigers, Elephants and Monkeys to perform amazing feats such as jumping through a fire ring, walking on a rope, riding a bicycle etc., (2004).
Thus we can see from above that Shaping can be productively used in daily life to learn as well as teach to obtain better results. A person can improve and achieve better, leading to the best result by adopting shaping technique. In this context let us recall the age old adage "Practice Makes the Man Perfect"; this adage was probably told based on this technique. Many people adopt this technique unknowingly and achieve best results.
Works Cited
W. David Pierce and Carl D. Cheney. "Behavior Analysis and Learning."
ISBN 0805844899. (2003).
Maricopa Center for Learning and Instruction (MCLI). Maricopa Community Colleges.
Negative Reinforcement University. 1999.
Operant conditioning From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 2005
Samuel E Wood, Ellen R Green Wood, Denise Roberts. "Mastering the World of Psychology." Publisher: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon, Boston. ISBN: 0205358683. (2004) Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Operant Conditioning Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words”, n.d.)
Operant Conditioning Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words. Retrieved from
(Operant Conditioning Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words)
Operant Conditioning Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words.
“Operant Conditioning Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Operant Conditioning

Islam and Democracy

6 Pages(1500 words)Essay

Classical and Operant Conditioning

...? ical and Operant Conditioning Your First Your Submitted Define and discuss the major characteristics of culture. Provide examples from your personal life and experiences to illustrate your discussions. The major characteristics of culture include the aspects of the daily life of people who are a part of that culture. This may include the clothing, eating habits and religious traditions of that culture. Clothing would include the garments that people wear, to protect themselves from the climatic conditions of the place that they live in. For instance, wearing a pullover or a jacket for me would be a cultural response in a place that would be colder than the place I belong to. My...
5 Pages(1250 words)Assignment

Classical and Operant Conditioning

...? ical and operant conditioning: On eating burgers and studying painting 23 February ical and operant conditioning: Oneating burgers and studying painting I have chosen to change my studying and eating patterns. I am not that interested in self-studying painting, but because my mother is learning it and I want to support her, I intend to increase my motivation to learn painting. I aim to read a watercolor painting book and I need to condition myself to read it every day. My goal is to read each chapter of this book and to apply skills mentioned there. I will use conditioned stimulus to achieve my desired conditioned...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Operant Conditioning

...?Operant Conditioning Introduction Many studies have shown that individual stimuli can control responses by operant conditioning, and there have beenattempts to show that a combination of these stimuli will give a greater response than when taken individually. The purpose of the current study is to explore the effects of both odor and tone on naive rats in a laboratory setting to ascertain how these stimuli, when combined, affect rat behavior above the free operant baseline. The experiment was conducted on four naive rats kept under strictly controlled conditions, each identical to the other to preserve any bias towards any one situation. Overall, the aim of the study was to explore how the different stimuli outlined above work... in...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Classical and Operant Conditioning

... ical and operant conditioning ical and operant conditioning are some of the most important concepts in the field of behavioral psychology.They have been invariably used in the practice of psychology and have played a major role in the development of this field. Classical conditioning was first described by a Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov and operant conditioning was first described by an American psychologist B. F. Skinner (Cherry, 2013). Although both processes promote learning in an individual, they are inherently different from each other. Classical conditioning is a process in which an association is developed between a stimulus that exists naturally and another stimulus that is previously neutral. This can be explained... with the...
5 Pages(1250 words)Research Paper

Operant Conditioning

...? Operant Conditioning 1st, July Learning is a continuous process in life, as people learn new things every day, which change different aspects of their behavior. For this reason, research concerning behavior and learning is crucial, since it is through this that people learn how to change or improve behavior. Knowledge on behavior and learning is applied in different contexts. In parenting, this knowledge is important in order to bring out the best behaviors in children. Different studies have been conducted on learning and behavior, and some theorists have developed theories, which help in explaining learning and behavior in humans and animals. Some of these theories include classical...
4 Pages(1000 words)Term Paper

B.f skinner operant conditioning

...?B. F. Skinner’s operant conditioning Introduction B.F. Skinner, American psychologist who was also an and an inventor, is regarded as one of the most eminent psychologist of the 20th century by many of his peers. He reached such preeminence and regarded so because of his crucial contributions to the field of Behavioral therapy through the formulation of the theory or learning concept of operant conditioning. Skinner came up with his theory of operant conditioning inspired by the work of Edward Thorndike, particularly Thorndike’s work regarding the learning behavior of animals with the aid of the puzzle box and resultant theory of 'Law of...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay

No fault divorce

5 Pages(1250 words)Essay

Coney Island Hospital

5 Pages(1250 words)Essay

Discussion board Common Crimes and Consequences

1 Pages(250 words)Book Report/Review
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Operant Conditioning for FREE!

Contact Us