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Anxiety disorders - Assignment Example

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Anxiety Disorders in Autistic Spectrum Children and Adolescents Name of of University Anxiety Disorders in Autistic Spectrum Children and Adolescents Van Steensel, Bo?gels, and Perrin (2011) state that children and adolescents who have Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are more prone to have anxiety or anxiety disorders than other types of children…
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Download file to see previous pages The authors did not do their own individual study; instead, they studied other research. There were no hypotheses listed in this study, but the authors state that the purpose of their research was to systematic review all studies they could find that reported on anxiety disorders with ASD youth, and estimate the incidences of each anxiety disorder in ASD youth. The study by van Steensel et al.(2011) used a systematic review of 31 different studies that involved 2,121 ASD youth. The researchers began with a systematic search of databases that included PsyInfo, PubMed, Web of Science and ERIC. The authors used several search words that included Autism, Asperger, Pervasive Development Disorder, and PDD and they used other types of word phrases like comorbidity, anxiety disorder, and anxious (p. 303). The authors primarily used the abstracts of each article they studied to for relevance to ASD and to youth. Also, the abstracts had to say that the anxiety disorder had been assessed by using a standardized anxiety disorder scale or through diagnostic interviews. van Steensel et al.(2011) used several criteria for deciding which research studies would be used for their meta-analysis: The reports had to be about children and youth who were diagnosed with ASD. The study had to be data based and was not a review of the literature study. The study provided the number of subjects for each study and children had to have a DSM-IV anxiety disorder. The mean age of children in the study had to be less than 18 years of age. van Steensel et al. (2011) found 86 initial studies, and from those studies a total of 31 studies met the criteria. The two diagnostic instruments that were used most often were the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) instrument and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G). Is a semi-structured interview that is conducted with the caregiver or caregivers that has them describe their child’s behavior and their child’s development. There were three behavioral measures for this test: reciprocal social interaction, communication, and restricted and repetitive behaviors (p. 305). The authors state that an algorithm was used to establish the specific diagnosis of autism. The ADOS-G is also a semi-structured instrument that is used to observe the behavior of children who may have Autism but who do not yet have a diagnosis. There are four parts of the assessment and each part of the assessment has a separate algorithm used to develop the diagnosis. The scores for the ADOS-G stem from scores that exceed the cut-off in the social behavior and communication sections. Out of the 31 studies that were selected by van Steensel et al. (2011), 14 used one of the instruments described and five used a second way to confirm a diagnosis of ASD or to establish an agreement about the ASD diagnosis between raters. Also, reviewers in the studies that van Steensel et al. (2011) chose to analyze were also used previous case histories and interviews with caregivers to verify that the children and youth had been diagnosed with ASD. As van Steensel et al. (2011) reviewed each research study, they calculated the ASD for each group, using the subtitles of autistic disorder, Asperger’s Syndrome and PDD-NOS (the authors did not provide definitions for these). They used a ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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