While discussing international relations between sovereign nations there has been an ongoing debate between the impact two predominant theories – neorealism and neoliberalism have on shaping approaches, attitudes and policies of nations as to how they would interact with one another…
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While neorealism essentially believes that international political situation is inherently anarchic and the only chance of survival a state has is through striking an acceptable balance of power, neoliberalism postulates the world is a community of nations where collective security should be the goal which can be attained through rational harmonization of sovereign interests of member nations (Calhoun 2002). So, it would be in the nature of things to briefly discuss these two apparently contradictory theories, more so the conflict between them, before one delves deeper into the intricacies of mutual relations between two United States and Russia.
Anarchy has very often been the starting point of many theories of international relations and the first important point of difference between these two theories is how they perceive anarchy and how they draw their conclusions from such perceptions. The problem possibly lies in having implicit assumptions regarding strategic considerations of a state that are not clearly codified but clouds clarity in drawing rational inferences. The second point of difference is the issue of absolute and relative gains of states. The issue of absolute or relative gains is inextricably intertwined with strategic environment of a particular state and the extent of absolute or relative gains is measured by a particular state against the backdrop of the strategic environment in which it is located.
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“Neorealist and Neoliberal Alternatives to U.S. - Russian Security Essay”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/politics/1404874-neorealist-and-neoliberal-alternatives-to-us-russian-security-cooperation.
Also prominent in the strategy is the Euro-Atlantic security structures. The strategy acknowledges Russia as a powerful nation that has the role of overseeing the way global affairs are conducted as an influential centre in the contemporary world. The country perceives itself as a superpower that greatly influences international developments even as it seeks to protect its interests and the safety and rights of its citizens both within and without national borders2.
Lacking a grand strategy, the United States is today seen by too many peoples of the world as a great power without purpose a giant that pronounces rather than listens and thus as a great danger.
Without understanding the impact of the four simultaneous revolutions globalization, information, and change in the nature of both sovereignty and conflict a search for national security is futile.
For example, Mearsheimer expected that the end of the Cold War would undermine the prospects for cooperation between the European states given that there was no longer a tangible threat from the ex-communist bloc (Mearsheimer, 1990, p.46-47).
Neorealists based their expectations on two key arguments.
The September 11, 2001 attack by Osama bin Laden and Al Qaeda astonished Americans.
"A democracy that feels seriously threatened must decide how it will protect itself. Equally important, though, is how it will at the same time preserve its liberties. For Americans, this is an especially agonizing dilemma.
As such, the imperatives of identifying the componential elements of national and global security, on the one hand, and of attaining a more accurate understanding of state behaviour on the global level, on the other, are incontrovertible. It is in response to the articulated imperatives, international relations scholars have forwarded theoretical paradigms designed to both interpret and identify threats to global security and the motivators of state behaviour within the international arena.
The extant security environment has witnessed a transition from state territorial security to more extensive, as well as intensive security that involves global security interdependence. Terrorism has been found to have a global
As the report declares political situation, economic aspects, and even religious features cannot function within just one precise territory of geographical area. It was possible many decades ago, but today it is something unreal. Living in this world of global links does not really mean being satisfied with the quality of current way of things and possible future outcomes.
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