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Evaluating practice through theories and models - Essay Example

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It was not until the 19th century that the practice of nursing was forever changed by Florence Nightingale who founded modern nursing (Klainberg 2010). Her nursing principles (i.e., environmental theory, holistic nursing), her astounding leadership, and her global actions led to the institution of decent standards for nursing care, helped systematise the approach to health care, and ushered in the professionalization of nursing care (Dossey 2005; Umali-Hernandez 2011)…
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Evaluating practice through theories and models
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Download file to see previous pages These nursing theories essentially provide the scientific bases for the claim that nursing is not only an art but also a science (Parker 2010). In this essay, three nursing theories will be analysed and criticised purposely to understand and learn how to effectively use these theories in everyday nursing practices. Then, Dorothea Orem’s self-care deficit theory will be applied to a case study (see Appendix 1). Jean Watson’s Theory of Human Caring The Theory of Human Caring, according to Watson (2000), was developed between 1975-1979 as her initial attempt to distinguish nursing from other health professions by combining the seemingly irreconcilable concepts of science and caring. She also regards her theory as “a humanistic approach to nursing that emphasizes human-to-human responsiveness rooted in upholding humanistic values” (Kim 2006, p.301), as she pays attention not only on patients but also on nurses, believing that both are interconnected. Watson (2000, p. 2) expands this further by explaining that nursing like teaching is not simply a job that can be mechanically done, but it is “a life-giving and life-receiving profession for a lifetime of growth and learning” which only becomes possible if caring is incorporated in nurses’ daily works and lives. Thus what distinguishes the nursing profession is caring and love. Watson’s theory is a good reminder to nurses of four important points: that the patients are all human beings that deserve equal care and love; that the knowledge and skills of nurses are only tools to assist them in which therapeutic effect depends on how much nurses care; that healing is a two way-process both in going through the healing process and in benefitting from it; and that nursing as a caring profession is a humane profession because without care humanity may perish. Furthermore Suliman et al.’s (2009) study, which aimed to assess the effectiveness of Watson’s theory in a multi-cultural environment found that Watson’s theory is measurable using the caring Behaviour Assessment Tool and is applicable to patients of various cultural backgrounds. However, it may be argued that Watson’s theory is too subjective as it greatly depends on the nurse’s commitment and caring consciousness. Every individual has his/her own way of expressing and accepting care. Thus, the expression of Watson’s theory may vary along individual personalities and cultural backgrounds of nurses and patients. Remaining two models will be discussed in the assignment 1. Case study, Applying Orem’s Self-Care Deficit Theory (Case: see Appendix 1) Introduction The author chose the application of Orem’s Self-Care Deficit theory on this case for two important reasons. Firstly, the aim of Orem’s theory fits well in the case. Secondly, Orem’s nursing process is clearly defined in terms of objective and technical components. Thus, this will be a good learning exercise for the author as to how nursing for self-care is conducted. In Orem’s theory (1959-2001), the nursing process is the method by which nurses can determine the person’ ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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