We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.
Nobody downloaded yet


Comments (0)
Bipolar Disorder Outline Introduction Bipolar disorder was distinguished from schizophrenia for the first time in early 1900s and American Psychiatric Association (APA) presented an early conceptualization of the disorder in 1952. Bipolar disorder is characterized by two extreme mood swings of mania and depression and also can be noticed in sleep patterns, energy levels, activity, attention and impulsivity…
Download full paper
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample

Download file to see previous pages... Cause of bipolar disorder is not known but genetic and environmental conditions may give rise to the disorder and its course. Environmental factors may include substance abuse, medical conditions (e.g. thyroid fluctuation), stressful lie events, and life styles that are consistent with general sleep-wake cycles. PET imaging helps identify differences in brain activities of the people with the disorder. This and other biological researches have rendered better understanding of the causes of the disorder such as dysregulation (not like an epileptic seizure) of the brain cells responsible for regulation of emotions, circadian rhythms and behaviors resulting in the symptoms of the disorder (Goodwin & Jamison, 2007). Bipolar disorder now ranks one of the top ten disabling disorders in the world among working adults with significant socio economic impact (WHO, 2002), (Young, Rigney, Shaw, Emmas, & Thompson, 2011). Bipolar experience of the illness can vary among patients substantially. Such as, some patients with depression followed by hypomania while others, mania followed by depression. Still others with alternating episodes with no intervals of mood stability (euthymia). Choice of treatments therefore is based on individualistic patterns of the disorder (Suppes & Dennehy, 2012). Guidelines of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) for the biological treatment of bipolar disorders mainly deal with the acute treatment of mania and bipolar depression. It is vital that acute and long-term treatment should be simultaneous for treatment planning and evaluation. For simplicity, both are dealt with separately. It is important to bring the acute manifestations under control as quick as possible but it is more important to have maintenance treatment which should prevent new episodes and complications and disabling conditions (Grunz, et al., 2013). See figure below: Grunz et al (2013)’s overall recommendations for long term treatment have assigned Rating Grade (RG) 1 to drugs Aripiprazole, Lamotrigine, Lithium, and Quetiapine which are listed alphabetically. Aripiprazole has been graded A for Prevention of Treatment Emergent Episodes (TEE) in enriched samples (PES) for “mania” and “any episode”. Lamotrigine, has been rated A in PES for “depression” and “any episode”. Lithium, A in PNES (Prevention of TEE in non-enriched samples) for “mania” and “any episode” and B in PES for “any episode”, “mania” and “depression”. Quetiapine, graded A in PES for “mania”, “depression” and “any episode”. The authors’ overall rating goes in favor of Lithium as still the best as it has two grading of A and B for episodes mentioned against each (Grunz, et al., 2013, p. 170). These drugs’ treatments are discussed in detail below. ARIPIPRAZOLE: PES: Monothreapy and combination with Lithium have proved to be efficacious in the prevention of new manic and mixed episodes in acute mania. PNES: As there is no long-term impact study in non-enriched samples, it has been graded F in respect of CE (Category of evidence). Further evidence (FE) of the efficacy of Aripiprazole has been proved in the metaanalysis by Vieta et al (2011) in the prevention of new manic episodes. Safety and tolerability (ST): Most common adverse event (AE) prompting treatment ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
Journal Article Review: 'Preferential Association Between Childhood Emotional Abuse and Bipolar Disorder'
Where genetic determinants have not been conclusively identified, psychological stress factors as determinants of bipolar disorder have been inferred to be a rich research vein, in light of findings that implicate such stress factors to the disorder's onset and recurrence.
5 Pages(1250 words)Article
Explore the relationships between nursing, health, and the policy processes
It deals with the case of bipolar disorder which is a mental illness disorder. Bipolar disorder, also referred to as manic depression (Lyness, 2011), is a mental disorder that leads to changes in a person’s moods, ability to work or undertake numerous activities as well as shifts in energy (Goodwin & Sachs, 2010).
3 Pages(750 words)Article
Bipolar Disorder
Other common symptoms are irritability, mood swings, anger, suicidal thoughts and a sense of hopelessness (National Institute of Mental Health, 2012). Therefore, this discourse aims at discussing in length about the current mental health among the Americans, bipolar disorder, signs and symptoms, diagnosis, mitigation strategies and treatment.
12 Pages(3000 words)Article
Bipolar Disorder
According to research, one of the basic pointers of bipolar disorder is as a genetic condition, where the patient almost always has a history of bipolar in the family. For example, according to Chung (2007), the case study presented involved a history of manic depression in the family.
4 Pages(1000 words)Article
Mental disorder
These swings from high state to low state and back can be very extreme. Bipolar disorder is usually diagnosed in late adolescence or adulthood. Children may also have the disorder but the symptoms are difficult to distinguish from other childhood behavioural disorders.
17 Pages(4250 words)Article
PPDB1Kan I qabu san
I live in the Baltimore city of Maryland. One of my goals in this course is to acquire an ample understanding the politics and policy making aspects of nursing and how the two aspects affect and relate to the nursing
2 Pages(500 words)Article
To achieve this, I had to recruit nurses, engage them in decision making concerning their daily practices and oversee patient outcomes. My main function has been to ensure that there is optimal patient outcome on my unit. To create
2 Pages(500 words)Article
Bipolar Disorder
Empirical evidence suggests an association of BD and altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. A study by Colasanti, Owen, and Grozeva, et al. (2013) investigates this association further by looking at the
1 Pages(250 words)Article
**choose topic within area of child development
A manic episode means disruption in life due to abnormally elevated mood, abnormal behavior and high energy. This article discusses the drastic growth rate of Bipolar Disorder in the US over
2 Pages(500 words)Article
The movement of the rats within the apparatus and the time a rat spent at the center of the apparatus served as measures of determining the rat’s exploratory behavior after the injection of LiCl. The obtained results from
8 Pages(2000 words)Article
Let us find you another Article on topic BIPOLAR DISORDER OUTLINE for FREE!
Contact us:
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • The Newest Essay Topics
  • Index samples by all dates
Join us:
Contact Us