Case Study Q/A - Essay Example

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Integrating Clinical Issues Name Institution Question 1 Unlike other foods, alcohol does not get digested; rather than getting converted and moved into cells and tissues, it evades the ordinary digestive process thereby going directly into the blood stream (Pedro & Eric, 2011)…
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Integrating Clinical Issues Question Unlike other foods, alcohol does not get digested; rather than getting converted and moved into cells and tissues, it evades the ordinary digestive process thereby going directly into the blood stream (Pedro & Eric, 2011). Nearly 20 percent of the alcohol gets absorbed directly in the blood via the stomach walls while 80 percent gets absorbed in the bloodstream via the small intestine. Considering that alcohol needs to dilute itself into the body’s water volume so as to travel via the system, vital organs such as the brain, which has a lot of water and requires sufficient blood supply is specifically vulnerable to alcohol’s effects (Obembe, 2012). Different sections of the brain get affected by alcohol at dissimilar levels thereby creating alternative periods of restiveness and stupor. Alcohol has long-term consequences on the central nervous system that comprise of tolerance, irreversible damage and dependency (Pedro & Eric, 2011). Changes in alcohol tolerance, as well as the dependency of an alcoholic drinker on alcohol, is an illustration that changes take place in the brain. The brain happens to be the organ mostly affected by alcohol, and confirms that it is getting damaged by the behavior of the drinker, together with his emotional distress (Obembe, 2012). There are three visible effects of alcohol injury in the brain, which include memory loss, augmentation and confusion. The drinker's swift mood swings, along with the emotional and behavioral volatility can be controlled by stopping drinking (Lake, 2006). Loss of memory or blackouts during drinking happens to be alcohol’s physical effect on the brain; this occurs when alcohol cuts off oxygen supply oxygen into the brain. Apparently, lack of oxygen supply into the brain is capable of killing the majority of brain cells each time a person gets intoxicated (Johnson, 2010). Additionally, learned behavior syndrome happens to be another alcohol effect on the brain; when a person learns a certain behavior under the stimulus of alcohol, he sometimes has to re-learn that behavior, immediately after ending drinking (Lake, 2006). Question 2 Alcohol withdrawal tends to be exceedingly unpleasant with symptoms varying from one person to the next; nonetheless, the majority of people go through some negative signs of alcohol withdrawal if they make an attempt of stopping the intake of alcohol after long term usage (Pedro & Eric, 2011). Mild to moderate signs comprise of headache, fatigue, nausea, depression, vomiting, anxiety, insomnia, abnormal movement and rapid heart rate. Severe alcohol withdrawal symptoms comprise of hallucinations, fever, as well as convulsions (Johnson, 2010). Although many people going through alcohol detox do not have to be hospitalized, in severe instances, hospitalization might turn out as being necessary. Benzodiazepines continue to be the drug of choice in the treatment of severe cases of alcohol withdrawal since their inception in the 1960s (Lake, 2006). Benzodiazepines happen to be a class of psychoactive drugs, whose aim is to decelerate the central nervous system through the activation of GABA receptors. This presents an array of practical tranquilizing effects. In addition to relieving signs of alcohol withdrawal, benzodiazepines are also usually prescribed for treating insomnia, convulsive disorders, muscle spasms, anxiety disorder and involuntary movement disorders (Lake, 2006). Chlordiazepoxide, together with diazepam happens to be the two most prescribed benzodiazepines (Pedro & Eric, 2011). Chlordiazepoxide gets preferred for its advanced anticonvulsant competencies while diazepam gets preferred for its safety against alcohol overdose. Question 3 Most people with alcoholism are unwilling to get treatment since they do not acknowledge they have a problem; therefore, there is a need to convince them that they require professional help (Michel & Johan, 2008). According to the medical records of Mr. Derek Donald, he suffered a number of conditions including post-traumatic stress disorder, major depression after divorcing his wife, detoxification, COPD, chronic alcohol abuse, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and type 2 diabetes. There are various treatments that might be helpful in this situation (Michel & Johan, 2008); the initial step is determining if Derek has a problem with alcohol, which in this case, the answer is yes. Considering that Derek has alcohol addiction, simply cutting back happens to be ineffective (Michel & Johan, 2008); therefore, working on stopping the use of alcohol to improving the quality of life turn out to be the key treatment goal. The different treatment for alcoholism suitable for Derek entails: 1. Detoxification and withdrawal: Alcoholism treatment might start with a program of detoxification that in most cases takes from two to seven days (Barbara & Nancy, 2004). There is a need for Derek to receive sedating medications to avert shaking, confusion, hallucinations or other withdrawal symptoms. This can only be done when Derek is in an inpatient treatment center or even a hospital; 2. Learning skills and creating a treatment plan: This entails alcohol treatment experts and includes goal setting, counseling, behavior change approaches, use of self-help manuals, along with follow-up care from a treatment center by experts (Obembe, 2012); 3. Psychological counseling: Apparently, counseling, a well as therapy for both groups and individuals is very helpful to alcoholics (Barbara & Nancy, 2004); therefore this will be helpful to Derek since he will understand his problem with alcohol comprehensively, together with alcohol support recovery from the perspective of a psychologist. In this case, he will benefit from family therapy considering that family support hastens the process of recovery; 4. Continuing support: Programs after completing counseling sessions, along with support groups will assist Derek to recover from alcoholism; this way, he will be able to stop drinking, control relapses and deal with necessary life changes. This might entail medical or psychological care or even attending a support group like Alcoholics Anonymous amongst others (Michel & Johan, 2008); 5. Treatment for psychological crises: In most cases, alcoholism leads to other mental health disorders (Barbara & Nancy, 2004). In this case, Derek suffered from depression and anxiety; therefore, it is essential for his to attend talk therapy and get medications, as well as other treatments for other conditions he is suffering from respectively; References: Barbara, K. T., & Nancy, E. (2004). Essentials of Nursing: Care of Adults and Children. Chicago: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Johnson, B. A. (2010). Addiction Medicine: Science and Practice. Virginia: Springer. Lake, J. (2006). Textbook of Integrative Mental Health Care. Los Angeles: Thieme. Michel, H., & Johan, R. (2008). Handbook of Psychological Assessment, Case Conceptualization, and Treatment, Adults. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Obembe, S. (2012). Practical Skills and Clinical Management of Alcoholism & Drug Addiction. London: Elsevier. Pedro, R., & Eric, S. (2011). Lowinson and Ruiz's Substance Abuse: A Comprehensive Textbook. New Jersey: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Read More
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