[Author’s Name] Pain Management Definition of Pain Pain is an experience that is common to all animals. It is the result of certain forms of stimulation and involves complex, multidimensional processes…
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Cyclooxygenases Prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthase (commonly known as Cyclooxygenases) was purified in 1976 and cloned in 1988. This enzyme is the key catalytic protein in the synthesis of prostaglandins from arachidonic acid, resulting in pain and inflammation, and is subject to inhibition by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS). In 1991, several laboratories identified a second gene product with COX activity, now termed COX-2. It is clear now that both isoforms, COX-l and COX-2 are expressed in both peripheral tissues and several areas of the CNS (Prochazkova et al., 2006). Theories of Pain Gatchel, Polatin, and Kinney (1995) state that there are two prominent theories of pain: the traditional specificity theory of pain and the gate control theory of pain. The former, still widely taught, proposes that pain is a specific sensation and that the intensity of pain is proportional to the extent of tissue damage. This theory implies a fixed, straight-through transmission system from somatic pain receptors to a pain center in the brain (p.416). In 1965, Melzack and Wall proposed the gate control theory. This theory suggests that there are physiological and neural mechanisms in the body that can have an effect on the perception of the painful stimulus (Hawthorn & Redmond 2001). The theory postulates that there are two controls that affect the gate. ...
This gating mechanism depends on the relative quantity of information being received over the larger fibers versus the smaller fibers. In essence, the two peripheral impulses interfere with each other to alter pain perception. The gate control theory has received the most recognition in the field of pain research (Gatchel, Polatin, and Kinney 416). Anatomy & Physiology The complexities associated with the experience of pain are immense. Hall (1994) addresses those that deal with the physiological aspects by observing that medical science has not fully explained pain mechanisms. The specialization of receptors has been discovered. This refers to receptors being more sensitive to one stimulus than others. Hall (1994) continues with the identification of the receptor that is "incriminated" in the reception of pain, the unmyelinated or thinly myelinated nerve ending, an "unencapsulated" nerve ending. Hall describes the myelin sheath covering that encloses nerve fibers. The thickness of this sheath varies throughout the body, from none in the periphery, to very thick where nerves enter bones, and other parts of the body. The covering acts as insulation to keep stimuli from entering the nerve from regions other than those served by the nerve (p. 11). Hall (1994) goes on to describe the receptor as a "primitive unorganized nerve ending and often has a weed-like appearance. It has many branches and overlaps with other receptors to totally cover the area which it serves" (p. 11). The area that a particular nerve serves is called a dermatome, which may serve an area of skin, a muscle, or any organ of the body. Hall states, "It is important to realize that the strength of stimulus is a critical factor in the production of pain in this and other
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There are various sources of pain: nociceptive and neuropathic pain. In nociceptive pain, the nervous system is working well and the body tells the brain that there is a source of pain, such as an injury or a cut; in neuropathic pain, the nervous system is not working properly because there may be no apparent source of pain, but the body is still telling the brain that an injury is present.
Management of pain following a surgical procedure is one of the major challenges and source of concern for health care providers. However, surveys have revealed that hospital postoperative pain management, such as opioid intramuscular injections are frequently inefficient, resulting in unrelieved pain in approximately 50% of patients
Though symptoms of pain are difficult to define and categorize; they are equally difficult to ignore. Moreover, in some situations excruciating pain is borne without a twinge, while in others a mild pain can be unbearable (Wall, 2000). The way we deal with pain is an expression of individuality.” Patrick David Wall Understanding the mechanism of pain and devising strategies for pain management have been the goal of researchers for centuries.
There have been recommendations on reforming clinical education and clinical practice in the nursing profession. This was noted by Henke, Frogge and Goodman (2005, pp. 649-650) as they assessed ways through which cancer pain can be managed. This essay explores the issue of pain management with a focus on the barriers to effective pain management while highlighting some of the ethical and regulatory barriers undermining proper pain management.
Pain management is a specialty of medicine also referred to as algiatry (Gordon et al., 2005). It is a branch of medicine that draws knowledge and expertise from a wide scope of researches, literatures, and day to day practices to ease the suffering and improve the quality of life of people with pain (Gordon et al., 2005).
But Harkins, Price & Bush say that "chronic pain is prevalent among older adults, but it is a normal part of aging. Physical pathology and/or psychopathology are always involved (Harkins, Price & Bush 1994).
The job of the clinician or the nursing aide has to be both a combination of psychologist/psychiatrist and caregiver in order to be able to give the needed care to the elderly.
The following discussion is going to consider the procedural problems of dealing with pain relief in the Elderly, especially surrounding the problems of deteriorating mental health. It is going to ask whether nurses should administer pain relief without the patient's consent; as well as discussing exactly what pain relief is.
Like the adults, children also acquire cancer in the same body parts. Cancers in the childhood has sudden occurrence, with no early symptoms but with high cure rate. The symptoms and treatment of a cancer would depend on its classification and its complexity.
The main goal of the perioperative care is to provide better and healthy condition for patient in the period before, after and during operation.
Perioperative nurses are the registered nurses (RNs) who work closely with the surgical
Technically, pain is a neurophysiological response to physical stimuli (Jay, 2007). Generally, most pain is caused by damage to tissues and is physiological in nature. Different tissues have dissimilar capacity for
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