Name: Title: Course: Tutor: Date: Question 1 Nature of Mycobacterium tuberculosis There are many micro organisms which live in and out of human bodies. Whereas there would be those that are essential to health, there are some that cause diseases. Micro organisms refer to microscopic living things found in air, soil, water, rocks, plants and animals among many other places (Medzhitov 2007, p.2)…
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This discovery was made by Robert Koch, a renowned German scientist and physician in 1882 (Nobel Price 2012). It was referred to as white and consumption plague then because out of seven human beings dying, one had TB. More so, it carried away more than a third of the middle age group working force. The bacterium affects body organs such as kidneys, bones, brain and most commonly, the lungs resulting to pulmonary tuberculosis. Today, the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, IUATLD (2010) documents TB as a great problem, particularly in low income countries. It has been cited as the number one killer for people between the ages of 15 and 49 with Sridharan citing it as “the single leading cause of human mortality by an infectious disease claiming 3 million lives annually with an estimated 8 million cases arising every year” (2006, p.1). Tuberculosis would be caused when an individual inhales Mycobacterium tuberculosis which enters through the lungs, spreading to other body parts through the lymphatic system, airways, blood stream or through direct extension. IUATLD (2010, p.5) observed that 80% of tuberculosis forms would be the contagious pulmonary tuberculosis. ...
Similar studies by Kempsell et al. (2001) indicate that rheumatoid arthritis patients had commensal organisms such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis trafficked from other sites of the body. The surface of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is characterised by a waxy coating, particularly mycolic acid that makes the cell Gram staining impervious as it would neither be gram positive nor gram negative (Sridharan 2006). This is the reason for application of acid-fast techniques of detection and has been classified by Guiard et al. (2009) as acid-fast Gram positive form of bacteria because its cells do not have the outer cell membrane. The micro organism is highly aerobic thus requires high amounts of oxygen. The bacteria divides slowly compared to other bacteria. It is said to divide every 20 hours whereas other bacteria divide in minutes, such as Escherichia coli which divides every twenty minutes (Medzhitov 2007). This is a small bacillus and would resist weak disinfectants and survive under dry conditions for several weeks due to its lipid rich cell wall, a critical virulence factor. In the lungs, it would have alveolar microphages take it up but would not be digested. Again, its cell wall inhibits phagosome fusion with lysosome. According to Todar (2009), Mycobacterium tuberculosis would block early endosomal autoantigen 1, EEA1, a bridging molecule, which would however not prevent nutrient filled vesicles fusion. The bacteria would then multiply within the macrophage. Having carried UrecC gene, phagosome acidification would be inhibited. Similarly, it would evade the killing of macrophage by neutralising nitrogen intermediates that would be reactive.
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(Infection Control Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 Words)
“Infection Control Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/nursing/1396297-infection-control.
The three sites that are utilized for central venous catheter insertion are internal jugular, subclavian and femoral.Although, like any other medical intervention,these catheters have their own share of complications,it is the risk of infection,which has the most serious clinical and economic repercussions for the patient,physician and health care facility
These infections cause discomfort to the patient and hinder the recovery process and in severe cases may even cause death.As the cost of treatment also increases,the hospital acquired infections are actually a burden on the government as well.The extended stay of the patient results in the loss of work thereby depleting his/her financial resources.
The National Patient Safety Agency (NPSA) outlines guidelines related to the national specifications of cleanliness in NHS, which is a framework for measuring and setting performance results in all dental care and primary medical premises (NHS, 2010). This research involved qualitative analysis of studies related to infection prevention and control in healthcare across Britain.
Today, business managements also pay particular attention to this concept. Pandemic planning is a documented strategy prepared in the context of a widespread outbreak of a fatal infectious disease. This concept has a broader scope in workplaces, communities, and in vulnerable areas nationwide.
The effects of infection on various parts of our human physique vary depending upon the microorganisms that attack and the state of resistivity of the immune system.According to Hans C J Gram, a Danish bacteriologist in 1800’s many bacterial infections are grouped either as G+ or G - depending on the type of bacteria that caused them.
These microorganisms can penetrate the body through the skin, through the mucous membranes present in the eyes, mouth and nose, through the digestive tract, by consuming contaminated food, through the urinary and reproductive tracts through sex, the respiratory system by breathing in contaminated air and the circulatory system through breaks in the skin.
It is also important to identify the risks associated with healthcare, and the hospital management system must implement processes to minimise adverse events and their impacts related to buildings, grounds, occupants, and internal physical safety systems.
The nurses are in a unique position to practice strict followership of infection control techniques in the hospital setting since it is through them the major portions of care takes place. They are in constant touch and communication with the patients, and they are the final common pathway for delivery of evidence-based care.
This study mainly dealt on online literature search guided by the four main sections of the entire paper. For instance, in the introduction section, the researcher searched material that covered infection control and hand hygiene. The researcher could establish the link between the two while at the same time developing themes to be focused.
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