Extract of sample "Adult Learners in Higher Education and Training(Human Resource Development)"
Adult Learners in Higher Education and Training Adult Learners in Higher Education and Training Contract learning has been the mode of learning that has been currently adopted among the adult learners. This learning technique is an alternative to the structured learning. Malcolm Knowles considers contract learning as student centered learning that replaces the plan content with a learning process (Knowles, Holton III, Swanson, 2012). This makes the learning process self-directed and independent thereby allowing students’ intensely participation and involvement in their own learning. According to Knowles, teachers for the adult learners should make their students participate actively in the learning process rather than making them passive recipients in knowledge creation (Knowles, 1995). The main aim of contract learning is to make students learning centers in their own learning process rather than making teachers the center of learning. Therefore, the use of contract learning is to solve learning problems by reducing several differences between different learning groups.
Learning contract aims at harmonizing learning environment for adults students with varied differences. Notably, learning institutions often receive learners from different backgrounds, interest, experiences, lifestyle, learning, and learning speeds as well as varied commitments. Thus, didactic teaching will aim at the middle (Knowles, Holton III, Swanson, 2012) will allow all these interests to be severed and catered for during the teaching process. This process often concentrates at the middle with the aim of pulling other ends. The lower end will be pulled towards the middle so that they are not left far behind while the upper end will be involved so that they are never bored during the leaning process. Therefore, the contract learning is a sure way of helping student meet their learning or educational needs on their own (Knowles, 1995).
Developing of Learning Contract
Developing learning contract need the teacher to have both cognitive and personal learning styles. Moreover, the teacher has diagnostic sense to enable personal learning and understanding of the teaching tools and needs of students Knowles, Holton III, Swanson, 2012. These tools enable the teacher to draw specific needs and objective of the contract learning process. Therefore, it is upon the teacher to formulated specific, clear, realistic, and understandable objectives of the contract learning.
Knowles, M. S. (1995). Designs for adult learning: Practical resources, exercises, and course outlines from the father of adult learning. Alexandria, VA: American Society for Training and Development (ASTD).
Knowles, M. S. Holton III, E. F. F., Swanson, R.A. A. (2012). The Adult Learner. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
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Malcolm Knowles was one of the most active adulteducators who claimed that learning contracts is the best tool in achieving study goals he sets out for adultlearners. Even though contract learning might be one of the most valuable tools for learning in adults it is not always the most useful. In those cases where learners do not have much knowledge about their subject, its depths and its prospects, students are not in a very sound position to make strategies and commitments about the goals they set for themselves in a contract.
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Contract learning demands from the students to demonstrate conceptual skills to establish evidence or proof of their learning. Contract learning allows adults to choose the area of learning that they are more interested in. This option of exercising...
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