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Describe the seven steps in the Instructional System Design (ISD) model of the training design process. Briefly define each of the steps and describe what occurs during each step. Name two flaws of the ISD model.
The seven steps in the Instructional System Design (ISD) model…
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Week Introduction to Training and Development Describe the seven steps in the Instructional System Design (ISD) model of the training design process. Briefly define each of the steps and describe what occurs during each step. Name two flaws of the ISD model.
The seven steps in the Instructional System Design (ISD) model of the training design process are: (1) conducting needs assessment; (2) ensuring employees’ readiness for training; (3) creating a learning environment; (4) ensuring transfer of training; (5) developing an evaluation plan; (6) selecting training method; and (7) monitoring and evaluating the program (Noe: PPT 8). Conducting needs assessment requires a closer evaluation of the requirements of the employee, the responsibilities to be undertaken, and the goals of the organization. Ensuring employees’ readiness would necessitate establishing preparedness of the employee with regards to their motivation, drives and needs, behavior, and basic skills for undertaking current and future responsibilities. Creating a learning environment defines the training materials and resources, including monitoring and administration of the training program. The phase that indicates ensuring transfer of learning means that people involved in the training process must validate knowledge, skill and abilities that were developed through self-management, peer and manager’s support. Developing an evaluation plan is a measure for evaluation and performance of the training program through identification of the learning objectives, selecting an appropriate evaluation design, and undertaking cost-benefit analysis. Selection of the training method requires determining whether traditional or e-learning methods are most effective for the organizations’ goals. Finally, monitoring and evaluating the program should determine the strengths and weaknesses of the program and address the weaknesses, as required.
The two flaws of the ISD model are: (1) in real life setting, organizations rarely follow the exact step-by-step process; and (2) evaluation of its effectiveness is only done at the end-time (Noe: PPT 9).
2. What is the difference between formal and informal learning? When is it preferable to rely on formal vs. informal learning?
A formal learning entails a planned effort for employees to gain knowledge regarding their specific job requirements. On the other hand, informal learning is a type of learning that is not structured or rigid and is based on a trial and error method, consulting colleagues, and researching for more information through electronic means. Formal training is more preferable in situations that require adherence to rigid, formalized and highly structured strategies to facilitate the achievement of identified goals depending on the competencies and qualifications of the employees being trained. For new entries, a more formal learning is required. Informal learning, on the other hand, is most applicable for employees who have had training and development experiences but require more in specialized areas.
3. Are the skill sets of workers today aligned with the requirements of the modern economy? Why or why not? What are the implications for training and development?
From the facts given from the 2009 ASTD Survey of 1,179 organizations, 79% of the respondents revealed that: “(1) skills of the current workforce do not match changes in company strategy, goals, markets, or business models; (2) 60% of new jobs will require skills held by 20% of the population; and that (3) by 2015: 76% will require workers with special skills in science, technology, engineering, or math” (Noe: PPT 20). The reasons for the mismatch in skills requirements stem from deficiencies noted in academic background where high school graduates have been noted to lack proficiencies in the areas of “problem solving/critical thinking, written and oral communications, and professionalism/work ethic” (Noe: PPT 22); while college graduates were observed by 25% of employers to be deficient in the areas of “written communication, writing in English, and leadership skills” (Noe: PPT 22) and there are increasing requirements and demands for more specialized skills, as noted. As emphasized in the European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, “people may have academic qualifications while employers may want vocational ones… Skill shortages that arise when workers are overeducated or overskilled are a clear signal that the education and training supply is poorly aligned with labour demand” (1 & 2). Also, technological advancement and developments contribute to skills gap (European Centre for the Development 3).
The implications for training and development of the current mismatch is that through accurate assessment and evaluation of required level of skills for identified responsibilities, organizations should design training and development programs that would hone the required skills to the level of proficiencies needed. More training professionals are therefore needed to address the skills gap and present a perfect fit and match between skills and job requirements.
Works Cited
European Centre for the Development. Skill mismatch in Europe. June 2012. Web. 24 January 2012 .
Noe, R.A. "Employee Training & Development." Power Point Presentation: Introduction to Training and Development. New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin, 2012. Print. Read More
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