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Summary
Archival data is updated over time, such that it becomes relevant and compatible to current times.
Observation method constitutes a real time scenario…
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Questions and Answers Question Examples of locations where archival data can be acquired from include: The internet and the World Wide Web – Internet holds up data centers that contain archival data among other data and information.
Public and private libraries – Published and unpublished archival data can be stored in libraries for access by library users.
Bureaus of statistics – National bureaus obliged to gather store data can provide archival data.
Advantages to acquiring archival data
Archival data enhances current research works and provides a strong baseline for future research.
It facilitates broadening of hypothetical analysis of research scenarios.
Archival data facilitates improved collection of data and variable measurement through the methods of data collection. Archival data is updated over time, such that it becomes relevant and compatible to current times.
Disadvantages to acquiring archival data
Incompatibility with the interest of the person who acquires the data.
Limits diversity and dynamism in research because improved research work is always based on the past data instead of carrying out the process afresh.
Available access rights to the persons who need the data may not constitute access of all available data. Some archival data is limited in terms of the people who can access it.
Question 2
Observation method constitutes a real time scenario assessment. Variables being assessed in the evaluation questions are addressed in the present time, such that the present observed scenario is evaluated and reported.
Question 3
The first choice that would need to be made in planning to collect observation data is the type of observation to employ. That is, naturalistic or participatory observation. Naturalistic observation does not require active involvement with the environment from which the data is being collected from; the latter does. The second choice is the period of observation. The observation can be carried out once or repeated for a number of times. The third choice pertains to data recording method. The data can be recorded or notes short notes taken as the data is gathered. Observation can also be done and the data computed after the observation process. The fourth choice relates to the scope of observation. The observation can be done on a single environment that best treats the variables of the data being gathered, or a number of environments can be integrated into the observation process. Another choice is made on the variables to be observed at a go. Observation can be done at once for all the variables constituted in the data gathering procedure, or observation data for each variable be considered one at a time.
Question 4
The scale contains numerical values, but the importance of the scale is to gather data that is of importance over and above the numerical values. Descriptions of what the numbers mean are valuable to the respondent because it allows the respondent to express his or her true opinion in regard to the issue in question. Different respondents have different experiences and may not rate their experiences the same way. Outlining the meaning of the numbers identifies the respondent to each category of numbers given the response required.
Question 5
Determine the type of survey to construct. This may be for example the use of interviews or questionnaires.
State the contents of the survey to be constructed, scope and the subject matter of the survey given the highlighted content and type of survey.
Identify data type and sources that will be employed in the survey.
Outline the expected target population for the survey given the objectives of the survey.
State the applicable assumptions of the survey.
Eliminate biasness in the survey model.
Run tests on the survey model to ensure reliability and validity of the survey, given the variables it treats.
Identify and counter shortcomings if any.
Question 6
Advantages to conducting focus group interviews
Data is readily available and accurate.
The different variables of the data gathering procedure are accounted for all at once.
Saves time and effort as compared to other forms of interviews.
Long and revealing responses favor the subject matter in regard to the reasons why these interviews were conducted.
Disadvantages to conducting focus group interviews
Biasness is likely to persist in focus group interviews.
The problem of non-response mostly occurs.
Focus group interviews are more costly in comparison to other interview alternatives.
Focus group interviews require a knowledgeable moderator. These moderators are hardly found and their services are expensive.
Question 7
Purpose of the interview- The goal and objective of undertaking an interview determines the scope of the interview. All encompassed variables of the interview should be considered before the interview questions are developed.
Phrasing questions- Questions should be direct to the main idea of the interview. Proper language should be used in regard to the identified participants. Simple questions are favorable, and each question should be asked separately. That is multiple questions in one question should be avoided.
Question types- Proper types of questions should be asked. There are different types of questions employed in interviews, but whatever the questions used, they should be directed to the primary objective of carrying out the interview.
Question 8
In the context of focus group or individual interviews, the evaluator should consider the scope of the data required. Knowledge and skills of the participants should be accounted, such that the respondents do not vary by greater margins in terms of knowledge and skills. The evaluator should also consider the social class diversity that the required data encompasses. This way, it is easier to collect unbiased data. Age is another factor that should be highlighted. The types of questions to be used for the interview purposes should be used to assert the specific age groups that best suits the interview. Language should also be considered. The respondents chosen should understand the language to be used well so that the questions are not interpreted differently by different respondents.
Question 9
Purposive sampling depends purely on researcher’s judgment about the samples to be used and how effective they are to serve the purpose of the research. Convenience sampling is where the researcher chooses the research samples based on convenience of research location and availability of those to be included in the research.
Question 10
A sample is selected in data gathering because it is difficult to use the entire population in the data gathering process. The sample therefore is selected to act as a representative of the total population. Employing the population in data gathering is expensive and would require a lot of time, thus the need for a sample.
Question 11
Using this formula:
n= t² x p(1-p)  

t=1.96
p=5100/456000=0.01
m=5%=0.05
N= ≈ 559
Question 12
Qualitative data is based on theory, while quantitative data is based on empirical models. A YES or NO answer constitutes a qualitative data. To make this data quantitative, it is subjected to a model that quantifies the answers by assigning numerical values and further employing statistics to produce a mathematical relationship.
Question 13
Cost-Benefit analysis provides an intensive consideration and evaluation of costs of a strategy against the benefits of the same strategy, in order to determine the strategy’s suitability for adoption or rejection.
Question 14
The end result of an evaluation is the communication and reporting of the entire evaluation process. This is a critical aspect of an evaluation because it asserts the success or failure of an evaluation. Any given evaluation is conducted with an objective of achieving desired results. The results link research gaps between the past and the present, and further provide a baseline for future research work. In the learning arena, this is an aspect that outlines the improvements and shortcomings of the learning process.
Work Cited
Russ-Eft, Darlene. & Preskill, Hoover. Evaluation in organizations: A systematic approach to
enhancing learning, performance, and change (2nd ed.). Cambridge, MA: Perseus Publishing, 2009. Read More
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