authorities to the 2001 anthrax attack (Perkins, Popovic, & Yeskey, 2002); shortly after the attack, clinicians in particular and the public health officials in general “were overwhelmed” by the numerous…
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ecast, the public health officials in particular attempt to develop and refine a “new methods of surveillance” (Buehler, Berkelman, Hartley, & Peters, 2004). These surveillance methods or systems -- also known as syndromic surveillance -- are principally intended to detect “early manifestations of bioterrorism-related disease.” The ultimate goal of syndromic surveillance is the earlier detection of bioterrorism-related disease before it exponentially spread to the community. However, few have questioned (if not attacked) the efficiency and/or accuracy, among other things, of the current surveillance systems. Researchers, working for the bioterrorism preparedness and response, admit openly that the attainability or feasibility of the syndromic surveillance’s goal “remains unproved” (Buehler et al., 2004).
No doubt, it is very important to fully learn the fundamental component, in the epidemiologic level, of the “biological agents used as weapons” (Pavlin, 1999). In grasping their basic principles, public health officials -- such as those in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) -- will be able to determine and detect the symptoms and/or prodromal illnesses generally characterized by bioterrorism-related diseases. According to Buehler et al. (2004), the early signs of people contaminated with anthrax are “nonspecific symptoms” that last for a few days and followed by a “severe disease.” Fortunately, scientists and medical practitioners understand the essential framework or nature of inhalational anthrax. It is only a matter of time (and technology) before one can truly detect the onset of the severe disease.
One of the reasons why the goal of syndromic surveillance is difficult to be achieved is because of the nature of the inhalational anthrax itself. Syndromic surveillance basically aims to determine the bioterrorism-related disease in the earliest possible time -- that is, before clinicians or medical professionals
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This results in not only improved response to bioterrorism, but also improved responses to many other infectious diseases and chemical toxins both synthetic and naturally occurring. Since its creation, the LRN has expanded to include state and local, military, and international labs, allowing for standardization and implementation of training and technical programs nation-wide.
The chip will also contain biometric identifiers- fingerprints or iris. Documentation will be screened for detection of counterfeiting at all security patrol points. Illegal infiltrations will be prevented by security at border patrol and suspect vehicles traced.
The author states that in response to this threat, gradually over five decades of work, the international community has developed a common universal legal framework against terrorism. This framework is comprised of the 19 universal legal instruments against terrorism along with the relevant United Nations Security Council Resolutions.
To prevent further damages, physical and psychological, caused by bioterrorism attacks, epidemiologic actions should be implemented. The first and most basic is the focus of this paper, clinical observations.
Bioterrorism has posed infinitive attacks within the past
rism in 2001 including the subsequent release of anthrax spores via the Post Office, the US government quickly passed a series of legislations aimed at curtailing incidences of bioterrorism as well as increased funding to the Health and Human Services. Albeit public health
This trend brings bio-terrorism to the attention of different stakeholders around the world. It is important to ensure that adequate, effective, and efficient disaster management plans are in place to address any emerging needs and/or
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