Blavatsky (2003), in an impassioned discourse on civilizations, asked: How can there be civilizations without literature in some form, without annals or chronicles? (p. 54) She argued that those crude societies that refused the knowledge of writing are credited with barbarism…
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He stressed that “writing is among the greatest invention in human history, perhaps the greatest invention, since it made history possible.” (p. 21)
The above observations are faulty, at best, if not outright ignorant because they are not true. The fact is that, not every civilization relied on the written word. There were sophisticated societies to have emerged, expanded and thrived for hundreds of years, without any form of writing. The thesis of this paper is summed up by Rousseau who declared:
Since God is so good, as to reveal his mind to man, why should there be any occasion for an interpreter? I can never conceive, that what every man is obliged to know, is confined to books, and that he who can neither come at those books, not at people that understand them, shall be punished for involuntary ignorance. For ever books! What madness. (p. 79)
Spanning the west of the South American Andes, a large empire was built by the Incas in the middle of thirteenth century. Their form of government and their society was sophisticated characterized by a vast bureaucracy, strong administration, crafts, advanced engineering and communication. Out of all the Incan achievements, it is surprising to know that they do not have any form of writing. What they have was a system of accounting based on knotted strings called quipo. The simplest quipo has a main cord of colored cotton or sometimes wool, from which knotted cords are suspended with knots formed into cluster at some distance from each other: each cluster has a number of knots from 1 to 9, and a cluster of, say, 4 followed by one of 2 and one of 8 knots represents 428. (Struik 1987, p. 16)
The Incans have also created their highly sophisticated calendars, which is another vital tool for any complex society that had to coordinate the activities of thousands or millions of people to ensure they paid their taxes on time. What the quipo and the calendars reveal is that, writing is not required in order
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“Babylonian/Ancient Mesopotamian Studies Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1567514-babylonianancient-mesopotamian-studies.
This region, which include Mesopotamia (modern Iraq and northeastern Syria), ancient Egypt, ancient Iran (Elam, Media, Parthia and Persia), Armenia, Anatolia (modern Turkey) and the Levant (modern Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, Cyprus, and Crete) is considered the cradle of civilization.
Ancient Flood Stories (Problems for Critical Scholarship)
The allure of ancient flood stories has a powerful hold on people because the stories allude to the way how the world was created and came into being. Although shrouded in mists of the earliest beginnings of time, historians and academicians study how these stories came about and what the stories really mean to all of us.
It happened from time immemorial and today, more structures are in place. Traditionally, considerable design and building was witnessed in Mesopotamia. Mesopotamia is the land between two rivers, Tigress and Euphrates. The Egyptians ways of constructions stand up to be remembered in the minds of historians.
In ancient Egypt, women achieved near equality with its male counterparts in practically all aspects of life especially the professions. There possibly for the first time in history, women made great strides in practically all areas of endeavour excepting the military and government administration.
However, marriage laws in the earliest recorded civilizations gave women a far higher recognition than many civilizations that came later. In ancient Sumer, five thousand years ago, women’s wedding contracts guaranteed a respect that is still lacking in some countries today.
This replacement was effected by the Neo-Babylonian and Neo-Assyrian reigns. Widely believed to be the origin of civilization, the society brought vital cultural developments, encompassing the earliest examples of literature. For instance, a bas relief symbolizing
The ancient beliefs of the Hebrews are almost similar to those observed by the modern day Jew aside from a few alterations such as the Talmud that notes the Jewish belief. In the ancient times, the Hebrews view of God would change depending on the various situations in
Artificial irrigation was brought into force to irrigate the lands and boost the agricultural sector. The annual agricultural activities brought about the development a calendar2. The calendar was used to as an observation tool to study the sky,
The first recorded history of human contribution to the society in the form of sculptors, architectures and paintings are Egyptian. It is argued that Egyptian civilization has played a major contributing role in all aspect of
How and why did the process of change happen in Old and New Babylonian periods? What features or phases of education, on the contrary, remained stable during the two millennia? In this essay, I attempt to answer these questions (Kuhrt, 1995).
Scribal school played a central
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