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Religion is of crucial importance to society since it facilitates the guarding of morals in society.
The word Mesopotamia in the Greek language means ‘the land between two rivers’, because the civilization began between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. It was in the Eastern Mediterranean, had the Zagros Mountains to the northeast and the Arabian Peninsula to the southeast, and corresponded to the present-day Iraq, most parts of Iran, Turkey and Syria.
It was called Al Jazira by the Arabs and has been termed to as the Fertile Crescent. This civilization is the earliest in world history and, one which lasted for the longest time having begun around 3500 BC and ended in (Chadwick, 2005). It had much influence in western civilizations and most of these civilizations laid their foundations based on its example. Unlike other civilizations, Mesopotamia was a collection of various cultures, which were only bound together by their gods, writing and how they treated women. Mesopotamia is regarded as the cradle of civilization because it was the first to build cities, use the potter’s wheel, to develop writing, to organize armies, use large quantities of bronze and is called the place where history began.
The yellow river civilization in china began in 4000 BC in China. Since water is known to play a critical role in the development of a civilization, the yellow river civilization owed its origin and development to the yellow river. The yellow river occupies a place of importance in china and has been known as the mother river of china. Just as the Egyptians credit their existence to the river Nile, the Chinese also attach great importance to the yellow river, referring to it as the cradle of Chinese civilization. The yellow river population was the centre of politics, economy and culture of the Chinese. It was also the center of science and technological advancement. It existed for 2000 years, covering the period
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A civilization is included in the category of ancient civilizations if it holds a large number of historic places and cities which exhibit the influence of political and cultural characteristics of that time. Some of the major characteristics of ancient civilizations include high agricultural development, a centralized government, a written language, use of technology, legal codes, division of labor, social stratification, science, philosophy, and arts.
The history of human development is replete with different civilizations that gave rise to various types of social organizations such as empires, states, and nations among others. Some of the early civilizations include Nile valley, Mesopotamia, and Indus river valley among others.
In ancient Egypt, women achieved near equality with its male counterparts in practically all aspects of life especially the professions. There possibly for the first time in history, women made great strides in practically all areas of endeavour excepting the military and government administration.
This is termed as the 'oasis hypothesis' as articulated by V. Gordon Childe which emphasises that it is the Nile which greatly influences the daily lives of the ancient Egyptians (Feder & Park 265).
But all the above theories were proved to be incomplete because archaelogical excavations in today's Sudan and southern Egypt in the vicinity of the Aswan High Dam revealed that there existed a civilization which predates the Egyptian civilization and which is even more complex and sophisticated than the latter.
This paper, however, will attempt to focus only on the divine aspects of supernaturalism in prehistoric and ancient civilizations.
Before discussing the different supernaturalist viewpoints found in civilizations, it is important to speculate briefly on the contradictory perceptions.
Mesopotamia was the region in within the rivers Tigris and Euphrates, where the ancient Mesopotamia existed during the "Bronze Age" which was ruled by the Assyrian empire. The region is believed to be one of the four valleys accredited as the cradle of civilization where the first writings were found.
There was no form of currency existing during the Egyptian period, however the Government levied taxes on the people for different purposes which were paid in work by craftspeople or by produce. The Mesopotamian
It was extended from basic reading, writing, and religion to higher learning in law, medicine, and astrology.” (A Place for Civilization to Begin)
The Mesopotamians were religious and believed in several deities, they also believed that
The first civilizations emerged reservoir of some big rivers that can be dated back 5000 years ago and was then called “water civilizations”. Early civilizations were figured by ancient nations like Mesopotamia, Egypt, India and China. The quintessence
, the relevance of these transition from the early man to the modern homo sapiens as well as a detailed description of the Paleolithic and Neolithic era.
In the history of human evolution, this is a pre historic period distinct with primitive tools of stones. These tools
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