The earliest stages of human history are lost to the modern world because all that remains of these early humans is their bones, a few buildings, and a few other archaeological details that have survived largely by chance. …
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Scholars from the modern world have to piece together what they can find in order to make educated guesses about what happened before history books started to be written. One factor seems to be significant in several quarters of the world in early human history and that is the existence of particular regions that ideally meet the needs of human society. River deltas have been established as the earliest recorded locations of major civilizations in ancient times, such as the Persians, the Greco-Roman civilization, the Indians, the ancient Egyptians and the Chinese (Sherman, 2003). Archaeologists believe that human beings first shifted from a nomadic, hunter gatherer lifestyle, to a more settled, agriculture based lifestyle in regions that were fed by great river systems. The nutrients from fresh water rivers were gathered over millennia and over time they created fertile plains which were ideal for growing crops. As early humans learned to plant and harvest crops, rather than just gather fruits and seeds that grew in the wild, they soon developed technologies like irrigation and long term storage facilities. The Nile provided a constant the supply of water so that the planted fields were irrigated, and food became plentiful. Cities grew up to store this food, and with increasing food surpluses humans gained the ability to have specialized professions. People were no longer living from hand to mouth, having to hunt or gather the next meal every day, because stored grain provided a certain security. New skills and trades developed in these cities, and the region around the Nile is one of these great early centers of human development. Much of the land in central and northern Africa is marginally habitable, with many areas of mountain and desert. The long river bank of the Nile provides the possibility of regular water supply and the development of trade between towns from the interior right to the edge of the Mediterranean. Land travel was difficult and slow in ancient times, and so the navigable waters of the Nile were like an ancient highway, allowing goods, people and ideas to be transported back and forth. The great Egyptian civilisation was highly dependent on the Nile as a channel of communication as well as a source of water for all human needs. Two great commodities were also available in the Nile region: vast quantities of clay, and also the reeds that could be soaked, fermented, and made into papyrus. So it was that the Nile provided the basics for writing, first using clay tablets that had marks pushed into them with a sharp, wedge-shaped implement, giving mankind the early cuneiform writing format. The tablets could be baked in the sun, making them a more permanent record. The disadvantage of clay is that it is heavy and it breaks easily. The invention of papyrus for writing on was an important technology that facilitated the transfer of ideas through scrolls that were passed along ancient trade routes. In the two millennia before the common era, the people living along the river Nile, and around its delta, were much more advanced than all of Northern Europe, thanks to the way that they learned to make use of the natural commodities that were available in this particular geographical context. It would be impossible to imagine the glorious ancient Egyptian civilization without the impact of the river Nile. The great monuments that exist even today such as the pyramids and the ancient town ruins would not have been possible without the availability of the slave workers, a great many of whom who came from central Africa and were transported in barges down the Nile towards the coastal region. Many of the stone quarries that provided the raw materials for building were also located upstream. It
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The African continent is inhabited by emigrants belonging to different parts of the world who until the 20th century did not even consider themselves as Africans (Kaiser, Africa and Ethnomusicology). The word ‘Africa’ is derived from Arabic term Ifriqiye which was an expression for the coastal areas of North Africa.
It’s noteworthy that over the half of this population is believed to be dependent on the Nile waters (Martinon 53). The river’s main tributaries – the White Nile, which originates in the East African highlands, and the Blue Nile, which rises in Ethiopia, merge into one some 320 kilometers north of Khartoum, where the Atbara river joins it; from there River Nile sets off for the rest its journey to the Mediterranean without receiving any additional water (Martinon 53).
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However, regardless of whether or not such an inclusion is made, the fact of the matter is that the influence and power that globalization plays upon the economic system which Friedman defines is vast. Ultimately, Friedman presents a work that seeks to discuss many of the influences that are currently shaping business and competition within the current environment.
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Author’s Name Instructor’s Name Course Name Date Why was the Nile River Important for the Rise of Successful States in North Africa? The Nile River is regarded as the longest waterway in the world, with its origins in East-central Africa is serviced by hundreds of tributaries, among them are the White and Blue Nile that link in Sudan.
Name: Tutor: Course: Date: University: Why was the Nile River important for the rise of successful states in North Africa? Many people describe river Nile as a unique river. Upon the mentioning of River Nile, what comes into the mind is the Egyptian civilization.
By the 4th millennium BC the valley had also attracted cattle keepers from the vast Saharan savannas to the west, and perhaps traders from other Neolithic communities to the northeast, as well.
The Lower Nile, from the First Cataract (modern-day Aswan) to the Mediterranean Sea, provides two different, but related environments.
Some of Middle East and North African countries comprise of Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, and Turkey. Islam is the major religion in these nations (Bowker 99). The abundant petroleum fields dominate the Middle East and North African regions. This paper will to address the political economy of Egypt.
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