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Glycogen structure is similar to the amylopectin molecule and it is highly branched.
The presence of the monomer compounds are identified by both acid and enzymatic hydrolysis. The acid hydrolysis takes place over a period of time. The acid hydrolysis by the mineral acids takes place readily. The acid hydrolysis product is glucose.(Melville and Alsberg 1930). The enzymatic hydrolysis of the glycogen by the a-amylase (a(1® 4) glucan, 4-glucanohydrolase, E.C.184.108.40.206) cleaves the alpha 1 4 linkage in the glycogen molecule yielding a mixture of glucose, maltose and dextrin at the end. (Barbour, 1929). The alpha 1 6 hydrolysis does not takes place as the enzyme is specific for the alpha 1 4 cleavage. As the hydrolysis occurs in a random manner, a variety of the products are formed. (Plummer, 2001).In both the hydrolysis procedures the end product differs. The glucose is the only compound in acid hydrolysis whereas in the enzymatic hydrolysis glucose, maltose and dextrin are the products. The end products are reducing sugars hence the estimation of the reducing sugars is carried out by the Dinitro salicylic acid method. The increase in the number of the reducing sugar production as the hydrolysis takes place is determined by the Dinitro salicylic acid method. The reducing sugars have free carbonyl group with them. This free carbonyl group is oxidized by the 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS). Simultaneously the DNS is reduced to 3-amino,5-nitrosalicylic acid under alkaline conditions. This is a basic redox reaction. (Miller, 1959).
The reducing sugars are easily measured by the 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) method. According to the Lambert Beer’s law, the concentration of the solution is directly proportional to its optical density. So if the absorbing index of a particular solution is known then the concentration of the given solution at that particular wavelength can be determined by measuring the optical
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This synthetic antifibrinolytic agent is derived from amino acid lysine. This paper examines various print and online literatures that provide information on the use of tranexamic acid. Literature on the use of tranexamic acid in orthopedic surgery and other Hemorrhagic conditions Guatam, Katyal, Yamin, and Singh argue that tranexamic acid greatly decreases bleeding after operation and reduces the need for blood transfusion among patients after undergoing a total knee replacement (TKR) (590).
Table of contents Abstract: This paper sets out to examine the causes of acid mine drainage of a site under investigation-a long-abandoned coal mine. The analyses of the samples collected were done to ascertain the alleged source of the river contamination.
Humans have been utilizing enzymes from the first time they made wine and baked bread or made cheese, though unwittingly. The discovery of and recognition of enzymes as such took man a very long time considering how early he began to use them for his purposes.
Reduced oxygen consumption was observed when mitochondria were incubated with linoleoyl CoA and carnitine. The patient's blood levels of carnitine are lower than normal and an acylcarnitine derivative is present in blood and urine. Mass spectrometry analysis of urine identifies this acylcarnitine derivative as trans- 2-cis-4-decadienoyl-carnitine.
Urinary tract damage and other cancers have been linked to the intake of aristolochic acid as well as kidney damage and kidney failure which requires dialysis or worse, kidney transplantation . Therefore, this makes aristolochic acid both nephrotoxic and carcinogenic .
There are many ratios that are used to determine a ratio analysis. These are short-term solvency ratios, debt management ratios, asset management ratios, profitability ratios, and market value ratios. The two ratios that make
A comparison between the analysed levels of the pH of the site to determine the source of contamination based on the Acid generating Potential and the Acid Neutralizing Capacity (ANC) which is calculated directly by adding acid to a slurry of the spoil
Nutrient and dietary needs vary according to sex, age and levels of physical activity. Nutrients necessary for bodily function are either macro nutrients or micro nutrients (BRYNIE 2002, pg9).
Macronutrients include the carbohydrate, proteins and fats. Carbohydrates
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