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Physiological Aspects of Exercise and Sport - Essay Example

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The essay paper " Physiological Aspects of Exercise and Sport" highlights such basic moments as an acquisition of energy in muscle (ATP-creatine phosphate, Lactic acid and aerobic), energy pathways during sports specific-exercises, physical training and the dietary need for footballers.
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Physiological Aspects of Exercise and Sport
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Download file to see previous pages A series of reactions first convert glycogen to glucose which is then catabolized to pyruvate and then lactate. Excess lactate also interferes with Ca2+ binding with the troponin-tropomyosin complex, a pre-requisite for muscle contraction. Before the problem aggravates some of the lactic acid diffuses into blood stream for further oxidative breakdown in liver by lactate dehydrogenase. A portion is assimilated as glycogen by gluconeogenesis and remains stored in the liver. Lactic acid system lasts for ca. 100 s before oxidative breakdown of remaining glycogen, involving, besides glycolysis, Kreb’s cycle and respiratory electron transport pathways set in. Though the process yields more ATP (30-32 molecules) per glucose molecule, the net production is reduced to ca. 6 mmol s-1. Here, muscle protein myoglobin plays a critical role to capture oxygen from hemoglobin and to transport to mitochondria, the organelle responsible for oxidative phosphorylation. There is a continuum of ATP production after muscle glycogen exhaustion first by partial utilization of liver glycogen, and subsequently carbohydrates and stored lipids. Among lipids, triglycerides present in adipose tissue are mainly hydrolyzed by enzyme, lipase into glycerol and free fatty acids; the later enters muscles and further gets oxidized to acetyl coenzyme A. Lipids are capable to aerobically support about 60% of energy demand of prolong sub-maximal exercise. An interesting connection is seen between lipid breakdown by Kreb’s cycle and glycolysis of sugars.
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Excess lactic acid brings about acidic pH and can lower glycolysis by inhibiting a participating enzyme, phosphofructokinase (2). Excess lactate also interferes with Ca2+ binding with the troponin-tropomyosin complex, a pre-requisite for muscle contraction. Before the problem aggravates some of the lactic acid diffuses in to blood stream for further oxidative breakdown in liver by lactate dehydrogenase. A portion is assimilated as glycogen by gluconeogenesis and remains stored in liver. Lactic acid system lasts for ca. 100 s before oxidative breakdown of remaining glycogen, involving, besides glycolysis, Kreb's cycle and respiratory electron transport pathways set in. Though the process yields more ATP (30-32 molecules) per glucose molecule, the net production is reduced to ca. 6 mmol s-1. Here, muscle protein myoglobin plays a critical role to capture oxygen from haemoglobin and to transport to mitochondria, the organelle responsible for oxidative phosphorylation. There is a continuum of ATP production after muscle glycogen exhaustion first by partial utilization of liver glycogen, and subsequently carbohydrates and stored lipids. Among lipids, triglycerides present in adipose tissue are mainly hydrolysed by enzyme, lipase into glycerol and free fatty acids; the later enters muscles and further gets oxidized to acetyl co-enzyme A. Lipids are capable to aerobically support about 60% of energy demand of prolong sub-maximal exercise. An interesting connection is seen between lipid breakdown by Kreb's cycle and glycolysis of sugars. Build-up of acetyl coenzyme A derived from triglycerides would inhibit pyruvate dehydrogenase, and citric acid, an intermediate of Kreb's cycle, would ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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