An example is the total number of citizens in a country or the number of doctors in a certain country- a population of doctors. In general according to Argyrous (2005), a population represents the total…
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According to Bryman (2008, p. 25), a sample has advantages than a complete count in that;
Different sampling techniques exist and they are divided into two categories namely formal and informal (non probability sampling). The formal sampling techniques operate on a known probability of choosing and they include; simple random sampling, stratified sampling, cluster sampling, systematic sampling and multistage sampling. Simple random sampling is a technique where all the elements are said to have the same chance of being selected. The probability of selecting any elements in the population is equal (Green and Salkind 2008, p. 57). This technique is applied in cases where all the elements in that certain population have same traits (characteristics). Such populations are said to be homogenous.
Another formal sampling technique is stratified sampling and is applied in cases where the population is made up of elements of different traits. In this technique, the population is sub-divided into non-overlapping sub-groups called strata (each is a stratum) each made up of elements with the same traits. Once this has been done, a simple random sample is selected from each stratum and then combined for final analysis. This technique is advantageous in that it eliminates biasness which is present if simple random sampling is used and also leads to higher precision. Cluster sampling on the other hand is a probability sampling technique in which the population is divided into clusters and then the researcher selects randomly the clusters to be included in the final analysis. It is mostly used in cases where getting the entire population for the research study is impossible or where the study population is concentrated in regions e.g. schools, churches, counties etc. The only disadvantage of this technique is less precision than even simple random sampling and stratified sampling.
Systematic sampling is the selecting of sample
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The aim of most sociologists is to carry out research that can be utilized to societal policy and benefit. Others principally focus on polishing the theoretic apprehension of social procedures. To enhance this there several research methods used in this field.
Precisely, the study focused on identifying the states in alcohol consumption and the behavior that different categories of drinkers would exhibit and the likely symptoms (physio-psychological) and consequences. The study identified three gradual states in alcohol consumption such as intoxication, tolerance, and dependence while behavioral categories related to alcohol consumption were use, abuse (noxious use), and dependence.
It can do this by masking, i.e., making it appear as though no relationship is present when one actually is, or it can imply there is a relationship when there is not. Therefore, a confounder will be related to both the independent and the outcome variable.
However unless this is qualified by qualitative means (post positivism), the numbers alone can often be misleading. For instance Sales or Productivity figures of a particular time period are of little value unless they are further
The author states that to test the effectiveness of the new drug on morbidly obese individuals he assumes that there is a causal relationship between dispensing the drug and its effectiveness in reducing appetite. To extend the conclusion to the whole population, this experiment must be conducted on a sufficient number of subjects.
Conversely, Qualitative researchers put efforts to evaluate the subjects and objects based on their qualities. “In quantitative research, the emphasis is on collecting data that lead to dependable answers to important
lts and make germane conclusions, researchers require using specific research methods that can be characterized with a great abundance (McNeill & Chapman 2005). It is fair to state that each research approach has its pros and cons that is why for every research problem, the
Qualitative research is a more subjective type of research whereby, a researcher introduces some bias to assist in forming a complete picture. This type of analysis is applicable in situations where a researcher is
Cruel beauty started long before women and men wore corsets in Europe to reduce their waists for aesthetic purposes. It reminded me of the Chinese small feet, where women’s feet were prevented from growth by tying them tightly from the 10th to the 19th
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