The world witnessed a landmark achievement in field of science when Scottish scientist Ian Wilmut introduced ‘Dolly’, the sheep, to the world (Rantala and Milgram 1). Dolly was not one of the common sheep. She was the fist mammal to be…
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y that, but Dolly’s birth created a huge reaction all over the world as it led people to think of the possibility of human cloning (Rantala and Milgram 1). But still, Dolly’s birth remains a landmark achievement for both, the scientists who were responsible for it and for the world of science.
Cloning can be defined as a “laboratory procedure in which the nucleus from the somatic(body) cell is transferred or transplanted into an egg cell from which the original nucleus has been removed” ( Saunders 131). In the process of cloning, the organisms that are genetically identical to each other and to ‘parent’ are obtained using asexual reproduction (Dale and Schantz 25). Even though clones are genetically identical, they are not identical in actual appearance and behavior as it the external factors like environment that influences their behavior (Dale and Schantz 25). In case of Dolly, as her cytoplasm came from a Scottish Blackface ewe, she was not an identical twin to her cell donor mother (Campbell 58).
Scottish embryologist Ian Wilmut headed the team at the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh which produced Dolly (Kunich 7). Dolly, the cloned sheep was born on July 5, 1996 (Kunich 7). Previously, the mammals had been cloned using early embryonic cell, but Dolly was the first to be cloned from fully differentiated adult somatic cells (Kunich 7). The birth of Dolly proved wrong the 100 year old dogma that “once cells are committed to adulthood, they cannot again be totipotent” (Wilmut, Campbell and Tudge 209).
3. The embryonic development is started by jump-starting the activation of the cell division cycle of egg with the new nucleus (Baldi 51). “ The developing embryo can then be implanted into foster mother
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It is with this understanding that the Arab scientists conducted their studies and explorations of the natural world around them, especially during the medieval era. The Islamic Golden Age falls during this time period, and starts from somewhere around the mid eighth century AD and continues till the middle of the 13th century, when Islamic science, literature, technology, arts, and philosophy flourished.
This is so because most such inventions are capable of both positive and negative outcomes depending on the way they are utilized. One among the most discussed inventions of the time is cloning. Recently, an Oregon Health and Science University team led by Shoukhrat Mitalipov successfully cloned a Rhesus Monkey and created stem cells.
To reproduce as a clone; to produce a clone or clones of …” (Haran 14) This gave rise to several concerns and research in the field and led to one discovery and another, especially ever since the scientists started taking interest in the birth of Dolly the sheep in 1997 (Galton 353).
The scientific term, “Cloning” is the replication of an organism such that its genetic makeup is the same and as a result,it appears as a carbon copy of its original counterpart. Clones have the same physiology, external appearance and the same genetic coding within their cells.
The term cloning is literally referred to as "using specialized DNA technology to produce multiple, exact copies of a single gene or other segment of DNA to obtain enough material for further study." ("CDC", 2006). The process itself is actually referred to as cloning DNA, and the resulting cloned (or copied) collections of DNA molecules are called clone libraries.
The purpose of genetic manipulation is to improve the functions of the existing organism or to produce new substances so it is the alternation of genetic materials by direct intervention in genetic processes. In biological sciences it is very controversial, exciting and young branch.
Even though these methods of cloning and breeding produced numerous plants with the desired qualities, the process was slow and at times suspect. The twentieth century scientists developed genetic engineering,
“Cloning is neither a simple nor a guaranteed procedure” (Donald C. Beitz, Departments of Animal Science and Biochemistry, Iowa State University, Ames). Scientists at Roslin Institute cloned a sheep, and thus Dolly was born,
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