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Cloning - Essay Example

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Cloning is the process of creating an identical copy of an original. "A clone in the biological sense, therefore, is a single cellor multi-cellular organism that is genetically identical to another living organism." (Wikipedia, 2006). As a society in general, the majority of us have at least heard of the term 'cloning'…
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Download file to see previous pages By discussing these to the full extent, we will be able to come to a more conclusive and knowledgeable objective on this subject of interest. The aim of this paper is to discuss of this, as well as the other key factors in regards to this issue. This is what will be dissertated in the following.
The term cloning is literally referred to as "using specialized DNA technology to produce multiple, exact copies of a single gene or other segment of DNA to obtain enough material for further study." ("CDC", 2006). The process itself is actually referred to as cloning DNA, and the resulting cloned (or copied) collections of DNA molecules are called clone libraries. In more simple terms, cloning is the process of creating an identical copy of something original. In the cloning of a gene, there must be extraction from one gene from an organism and insert that into another organism, where it can then be used and studied. There is also a related technique to this which is called subcloning, which refers to the transferring of a gene from one plasmid into another, again for further study.
Cloning is the process of making a genetically identical organism through nonsexual means. Although the idea of cloning may seem rather revolutionary to some, it has in fact been around for some while. It has been used for many years to produce plants (in fact even growing a plant from a cutting is a type of cloning). The terms 'recombinant DNA technology', 'DNA cloning', 'molecular cloning', or 'gene cloning' all refer to the same process: the transfer of a DNA fragment on interest from one organism to a self-replicating genetic element such as a bacterial plasmid. "This technology has been around since the 1970s, and it has become a common practice in molecular biology labs today." (Cloning Fact Sheet, 2006).
When the media report on cloning in the news, they are usually only talking about one type of cloning, which is called reproductive cloning. However, there are many different forms of cloning, including human cloning, animal cloning, and cellular cloning.
As for reproductive cloning, it is a technology which is used to generate an animal that has the same DNA as another currently or previously existing animal. The majority of reproductive cloning has so far been tried and tested on animals, with the modern cloning techniques involving nuclear transfers being successfully performed on several species. These land mark experiments in chronological order are:
Tadpole (1952)
Carp (1963)
Sheep (1986)
Rhesus monkey: Tetra (female, January 2000)
Cattle: Alpha and Beta (males, 2001) and (2005) Brazil
Cat: Copycat "CC" (female, late 2001), Little Nicky (2004) was the first cat cloned for commercial reasons
Mule: Idaho Gem (2003)
Horse: Prometea (2003)
Human (2005)
Dog: Snuppy (2005)
The recent success in cloning animals has sparked
fierce debates among scientists, politicians and the general public about the use and morality of cloning plants, animals and possibly humans. Although some argue that cloning can be used for many positive reasons, such as to preserve and increase the number of various endangered species, others are outraged at the 'misuse and mistreatment of science'.
Currently the most successful cloning technique is
that of the somatic cell nuclear transfer. This is the same cloning technique which allowed Dolly the sheep to be cloned, is also the same technique used by ACT - the first company to ...Download file to see next pages Read More
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