Four Questions - Essay Example

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e) If certain conditions are met, such as random sampling, the use of reliable, valid instruments, and lack of contamination of results by the researcher’s values, results can be generalised to other people in similar settings.
These assumptions fall into the positivist and…
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What are the 6 assumptions apart of Hollands Theories? Explain briefly what they are? The theories that have been set down are as follows: a) Human Behaviour can be measured objectively if reliable, valid instruments are utilised.
b) Human Behaviour can be studied outside the context in which it occurs
c) Research processes should be value free. If the researcher’s values enter into the process, the results are likely to be flawed.
d) Cause and effect relationships occur and can be measured.
e) If certain conditions are met, such as random sampling, the use of reliable, valid instruments, and lack of contamination of results by the researcher’s values, results can be generalised to other people in similar settings.
f) As much as possible career counsellors should maintain their objectivity, use instruments that are reliable and valid, and base their practice on well – designed empirical research.
These assumptions fall into the positivist and post modern theories categories. Theories like the trait – and Factor, developmental, and theories which relate to the positivist and philosophical thinking.
What are the 2 assumptions of work adjustments? Explain breifly what they are?
The two main assumptions of the Theory of Work Adjustments are:
a) People have two types of needs, these include, biological and psychological. These form the basic needs of people and this has a great affect on the behaviour of individuals.
b) It has been presented that work has requirements that are analogous to the need of individuals. These highlight that when the needs of individuals re satisfied they work better and prove to be more effective at the job.

What are the 3 propositions of Brown’s Base Theory? Also briefly explain what they are?
Brown’s Base theory set down three main propositions, these include the following:
a) The most essential determinants of a career choice for people is one who believes in individualism. It is seen that these individuals tend to feel unconstrained to act on their work values.
b) Secondly, people who have collective social values are mostly from families or groups with similar social values which either defer to the wishes of the groups or families and also there is a strong influence on the decision making process. People tend to correlate lesser and the work values of people who value individualism and make their own occupational choices.
c) There are no constraints for the occupational decision – making process when the individual cultural values are taken into consideration. The decisions taken by people who believe in individualism are generally more important transition points like the graduations from school. These people tend to act on the decisions made more than people who are either collectivism or individualism and more focused on being or being – in – becoming.
Identify 4 factors influencing career decision making? Also explain briefly each one.
The four main factors that influence the career decision making include:
a) Genetic Endowment and Special Abilities: It has been recognised by Krumboltz that there are certain inherited characteristics which can influence the individuals to a great extent. Examples of these include, race, gender, physical appearance and others like intelligence, musical abilities or even physical coordination.
b) Environmental Conditions and Events: These are external forces that influence peoples’ choices. However these play a very important role in the decision making process. Some of these influences are man made while others are natural sources.
c) Learning Experiences: Also the experiences that people gain from education and life are both a major part of the decision making process of careers. There are two main types of learning experiences that can be gained, a) Instrumental which are when the individuals act on the environment to produce certain consequences and b) Associative Learning Experience which is more based on external stimuli and gained by pairing two events in time or location.
d) Task Approach Skills: These are the skills that individuals need for each task. These skills have a direct impact on each of tasks and can be modified based on the results that have been gained. Read More
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