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Pain occurring for few seconds or lasting for many hours and which is above the mandible and below the epigastrium is not due to angina (Alaeddini, 2006). Also, the intensity of angina does not change with respiration, cough, or change in position. Other symptoms include palpitations, exertional dyspnoea, diaphoresis, nausea and decreased exercise tolerance (Fenton 2007).
Angina decubitus is a variant of angina that occurs typically in the night when the patient is in the recumbent position. Unstable angina is new-onset angina with significant recent increase in frequency and severity of angina, or angina at rest. The angina is of atleast class-III severity (Alaeddini, 2006).
1. Decreased myocardial blood supply due to increased coronary resistance in large and small coronary arteries due to coronary atherosclerotic lesion, coronary spasm, microvascular angina, systemic inflammatory or collagen vascular diseases, etc (Alaeddini, 2006).
The major risk factors for atherosclerosis include family history of premature coronary artery disease, cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, or systemic hypertension. Other risk factors are LV hypertrophy, obesity, and elevated serum levels of homocysteine, lipoprotein-A, plasminogen activator inhibitor, fibrinogen, serum triglycerides, or low high-density lipoprotein (Alaeddini, 2006).
The main stay of treatment for angina pectoris is sublingual nitroglycerin. It is used both for acute relief of symptoms and as prophylactic treatment during certain activities. Betablockers are also used for symptomatic relief of angina and prevention of ischemic events. Calcium channel blockers can be used to control anginal symptoms in patients with a contraindication to beta-blockers and in those in whom symptomatic relief of angina cannot be achieved with the use of beta-blockers, nitrates, or both (Alaeddini, 2006). Antiplatelet drugs like aspirin or clopidogrel are given to prevent
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The best strategy to employ is to empower the practitioners caring for the patients with the recommended knowledge, competence, and skills in order to recognize and effectively manage them. Acute illness courses offer most healthcare practitioners with various experiences that assist in promoting opportunities for the learning students to improve their skills and knowledge in caring for the vulnerable patients.
No inhalation of the spray should take place. An initial one-metered dose ought to be sprayed below the tongue at an attack’s onset, followed by another metered dose within a period of five minutes should pain relief not occur. It is recommended that it should not exceed two metered doses.
Usually, the discomfort usually spreads to the sub-sternum area (Siegenthaler 222). In line with this, it is important to point out that the attack by angina usually occurs when a person is undergoing stressful conditions with a rest playing an instrumental role in relieving the person of the pain.
Types of heart diseases include the Coronary heart disease (CHD), Angina pectoris, Congestive heart failure, Cardiomyopathy, Congenital heart disease, Arrhythmias, and Myocarditis. This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of the treatment, causes, and effects, in addition to symptoms, arguments, and examples of each of the types of heart diseases.
3-9; Crea & Gaspardone 3767).
At present angina pectoris is generally used to include conditions such as myocardial ischaemia, esophagus, lung or chest wall disorders. An extensive description for angina pectoris includes discomfort in the jaw, shoulder, upper limbs and back.
The application of the different concepts had been achieved through actual study of a patient with the related ailment.
The CHD is a state wherein the heart is having malfunctions due to hindered supply of oxygen from clogged arteries. The
nt through a bout of severe nose bleeding (epistaxis) with dizziness and registered pathophysiological signs of abnormalities on heart pump and blood vessel functions causing him a 180/110 reading in blood pressure.
Based on the case description, the patient encountered
(Dugdale, 2012). Some of the other names given to Unstable Angina include: “Accelerating angina; New-onset angina; Angina - unstable; Progressive angina” (Dugdale, Unstable angina, 2014)
Unstable angina does not follow any patterns. It may happen more frequently
Platelet activation and aggregation starts soon after the rupture. Vasoconstriction of the vessels starts to occur due to which the person has compromised blood flow and may lead to infarction. Thrombosis also