In the Germanys, as elsewhere, nationalism was a movement of resistance to the forcible internationalism perpetuated by the French conqueror. Germans were not happy by the prospect of European continent…
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Friedrich List is placed among the leading economists of modern times. He strongly rejected the motion of abstract validity of economic doctrines through careful examination of accepted views and rejection of anything without practical value. He opposed the principle of cosmopolitanism in the economic system especially the doctrine of free trade. 2
Though he recognized the importance of the work of Adam Smith and the classical school of economics in assuring industrial and commercial supremacy of England in the first industrial renovation, list deemed that work unsuitable for Germany. He rejected the parallelism imposed by Adam Smith between the economic conduct of the individual and that of a nation and asserted that the special interests of the individual members of the nation would not necessarily lead to the highest good of the nation as a whole.3
Hans Kohn described list as father of German economic nationalism but at the same time as one of the most extreme of Pan-German imperialists. Reasons for his judgment may be in the transformations of German political life from the unsuccessful liberal attempt to unify the Germanies in the revolution of 1848 to the blood and iron policy of Otto Von Bismarck. In the struggle between a steadily intensifying nationalism in the Bismackian power-mold and the weakening German liberalism, list choose the side which world eventually be led by Bismarck.4
List predicted that European communities would think in terms of the creation of larger markets as a stimulus to economic growth and political integration was linked together. As a zealous German patriot, List looked forward to European economic unification eventually under Germany auspices. As stated by Roussakis he was sceptical of the economic viability of other nations in the continent especially in the face of British economic competition.
The 1850’s political framework and its qualitative
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According to the report How Important Was Nationalism as a Cause of Revolution in 1848 the political disorder in Europe in the 19th century was a reflection of persistent conflicts and struggle between well-established conservative order in the society and the desires of a variety of liberals and radicals, eager to change and challenge the existing system.
Romeo and Juliet is perhaps Shakespeare’s work that has achieved the greatest longevity. This works follows the interactions between two lovers – Romeo and Juliet – before they inadvertently commit suicide. Even as this tragic component to the play has given it incredible impact, the way Shakespeare implements character elements is equally significant.
The supremacy of Austria in Germany had been reestablished by the Treaty of Olmitiz, which was humiliating both to the national idealists represented by the Frankfurt Parliament and to the Prussian monarchy (Martin 2000, pg. 51). Yet between the years of 1850 and 1870 one of the most remarkable changes in European history in the nineteenth century took place.
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