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ically evaluate this role played by the nurse while linking incontinence to the ageing process, examining attitudes to it, the impact it has on older persons and their family, and looking at the strategies used in health promotion and rehabilitation as well as the steps taken by the National Service Framework for Older People.
Most people assume that incontinence is a part of ageing. However in reality this is far removed from the truth. The human body as it ages, invariably shows signs of wear and tear and bodily functions tend to become slow and rusty. Therefore older people are more vulnerable to numerous ailments and such illnesses weaken the body further. And yet, “None of these age-related changes cause incontinence, but they do predispose the elderly to it” (DuBeau, 2002 p.12). Therefore a brief study of the anatomy and physiology will help in understanding the age-related factors that pre-empt incontinence.
The urinary system has a vital part in maintaining health in the human body. And it is on the urinary system that the inexorable process of ageing takes its toll. The kidney is the chief organ in the excretory system and as it ages it is unable to function as before. In the words of Nazarko (2002 p.134), “the weight of the average kidney decreases from 250 grams to 200 grams between the ages of 20 and 80”. There is reduced blood flow to the kidney, further hampering its functioning. Studies have shown that with increasing age there is marked reduction in the glomerular filtration rate. Therefore according to Addison (1999), “… there is less efficient response to water depletion and older people tend to continue to produce more urine which is also less concentrated than that produced by a younger person”(cited in Wilson 2003 p.142). This situation particularly when further exacerbated by illness may lead to incontinence.
As the person ages there is reduced bladder capacity coupled with reduced sensitivity. The former condition is brought
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On the other hand, the concept of active aging has been emphasized by many as the older population is still able to contribute positively to their families, societies and nations. As pointed out by Borowski, Encel and Ozanne (2007, p. 13) old age should be perceived as “a transition rather than a crisis, with opportunities as well as challenges” and the major challenge before the governmental agencies and the nation as a whole is “to promote healthy and productive ageing and to adjust social structures to include older people as contributors to society.” This call for a radical change in the social construction of older people as well as conducive economic and social policies and pra
The diverse illnesses and problems of aging were being raised simultaneously. This writer will be highlighting two problems in this discussion: falls in acute care facility and elder abuse and neglect. The factors that contributed to problems like falls were dementia, cognitive deficits, lack of familiarity, altered mobility behaviours, environmental factors, worsening eyesight, diminishing confidence and unnoticed hazards (Clemson et al, 2003).
This essay demonstrates that sense of independence is a very important goal for the older people. But the loss of physical function and falls affect the older people’s independence and well-being. Both of these can either be the causes or consequences of each other. Morbidity and disability including falls are positively associated with old age.
The nursing profession is usually bound by its own code of ethics which imposed thorough disciplinary sanctions on deviant practitioners. The practice of nursing is also governed by legal terms which usually define their scope of practice. These legal terms are generally instituted by a political arm of the country within which the nurse practices.
Those who are advanced in years appear to have been moved towards the margins of society, to pine away in long-term care homes and other facilities that care for the elderly. Although many of these institutions provide sterling care, it is also true that these patients have suffered terrible abuses at the hands of their caregivers.
It has been mentioned by researchers that, it is very difficult to know the incidence of urinary incontinence in the population, but all the researchers are aware of the social stigma associated with it, and for this reason, this remains an underreported problem
the pelvic floor muscles especially in people suffering from muscular sclerosis, Alzheimer disease, Parkinsons, stroke and other neurological diseases. It can also be caused as a side effect of medication or surgery. Bates et al., (1979) define continence as “a condition in
indeed feel negative about working with the aged; however, these negative attitudes are not reflected in the care given, rather attitudes express themselves in a variety of subtle ways. This may affect the quality of care and the necessity of care within the ethical and legal