Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Go to advanced search...

Development of the Troubles in Northern Ireland - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
The history of Ireland has been a history of struggle against a foreign occupier. It has also been a history of struggle for a satisfactory relationship with Britain, verging from attempts to remain within the British Empire and Commonwealth to outright rejection of any links with Britain.
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER98.3% of users find it useful
Development of the Troubles in Northern Ireland
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Development of the Troubles in Northern Ireland"

Download file to see previous pages They did this by discriminating in houses and jobs in favor of Protestants and by gerrymandering local boundaries, which gave Protestants a majority in the local government of Londonderry, a predominantly Catholic area. In 1967 Catholic nationalist and republican leaders formed the Northern Irish Civil Rights Association (NICRA), inspired by the Civil Rights Movement in the US, to campaign against discrimination (Purdy, 2000).
Goulding's plan caused a decisive split in the IRA and its political wing in 1969-70. Traditionalists rejected Goulding and set up the Provisional IRA, taking its name from the 1916 Provisional Government. And it was the 'Provos' (Purdy, 2000) who rigorously stuck to a strategy of bombings and shootings in the 1970s and 1980s with some hardcore support in working-class Catholic ghettos in Belfast and Londonderry. Attacks on the British Army and the Royal Ulster Constabulary were justified by the claim that the Provos were engaged in a war against an occupying power. The political dimension was neglected until some of the younger IRA leaders, notably Gerry Adams and Martin MacGuiness, moved into Provisional Sinn Fein. Then and only then did a disposition to compromise emerge with successive IRA ceasefires, and the amazing recent spectacle of Sinn Fein members taking up appointments in the new Northern Ireland Assembly. The strategy of abstentionism had at long last been cast aside.
In the words of Purdy, (2000) People's Democracy was formed in October 1968 by students at the Queen's University, Belfast, as a radical, socialist offshoot of NICRA. It became the principal initiator of violence in the North, seeking revolution and confrontation as it marched into Protestant areas and helped to destroy the moderate centre in Ulster politics. People's Democracy was at the centre of nearly every violent confrontation between civil rights demonstrators and the unionists, backed up by the RUC (Royal Ulster Constabulary). On 4 January 1969 there was a civil rights march (based on Martin Luther king's Selma freedom march in 1965) from Belfast to Londonderry, organized by People's Democracy. It was attacked outside Derry by a Protestant mob wielding cudgels: the RUC gave the marchers no protection. Later that day the RUC and 'B' Specials (Protestant special constabulary) went on the rampage in Derry's Catholic Bogside. In retaliation the inhabitants sealed off the Bogside, making it a 'No-Go area' and called it Free Derry (Townson, 2006).
These events broke up the alliance which Terence O'Neill, the Northern Ireland Prime Minister, was promoting between the moderates in both communities. James Chichester-Clark replaced O'Neill as Prime Minister in April 1969 and tried to reduce tension by introducing reforms Catholics had long demanded to end discrimination in housing, jobs and local government, but the reforms came too late. There was serious rioting in the summer of 1969, which the RUC was unable to contain, so ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Development of the Troubles in Northern Ireland Essay”, n.d.)
Development of the Troubles in Northern Ireland Essay. Retrieved from
(Development of the Troubles in Northern Ireland Essay)
Development of the Troubles in Northern Ireland Essay.
“Development of the Troubles in Northern Ireland Essay”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Development of the Troubles in Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland Ethnic Conflict

Through the Ireland’s government act of 1920, the Island was partitioned into Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland, a move that was opposed by some unionists and a majority of the nationalists. In addition, it became part of the Irish Free State that had been formed in the course of the Irish Free State Constitutional act of 1922 (O’Callagha), but afterward, the parliament of Northern Ireland picked out of the Irish Free State through an address to the king. This request having been granted, Northern Ireland received self-governing under the United Kingdom; a move that sparked sporadic violence in the region as some groups were opposed to the partitioning of Ireland. Following the state of tensions in the region, there were acro...
5 Pages(1250 words)Research Paper

Northern Ireland Political Conflict

This essay discusses the various perspectives to the peace process and conflict resolution in Northern Ireland showing that the outcome of the peace process as an enduring framework could be interpreted in different ways.
After the finalisation of the Northern Ireland accord, all Northern Ireland political groups agreed on the formation of a new coalition government, but in 1999 the peace process faced a major setback when the IRA refused to disarm. The IRA claimed that it would disarm only after a new government is formed. The Ulster Unionists wanted disarmament of the IRA and boycotted the Assembly session that would have nominated a new coalition government. Thus the initiated Northern Irish government that was promised in...
6 Pages(1500 words)Case Study

Northern Ireland Conflict

... religion form school curriculum and points that Christianity could only have a positive influence in developing moral values that would enhance and support the peace process. From this context, one of the barriers to the peace process could be misinterpretation and mis-representation of religion and religious values and the emphasis given to secularisation of education as a result of such conflicts. Barnes suggests that religion can play a constructive role in the long term peace process of the region. Conclusion: This essay discussed on several factors that seem to have acted as barriers or obstacles to the peace process of Northern Ireland. This would be the strategic factors, the political and social obstacles, the religious barriers...
4 Pages(1000 words)Case Study

Northern Ireland History

This is what will be dissertated in the following.
When discussing the history of Ireland, the 'peace process' is generally considered to cover those events which lead up to the 1994 IRA ceasefire, the end of most of the violence of The Troubles, the Belfast (or Good Friday) Agreement, and subsequent political developments. The history of Ireland in regards to the peace process as well as the ongoing battle and strenuous struggle for peace in the modern world is one of great detail and significant complexity.
The Good Friday Agreement was reached in Belfast on Friday, April 10, 1998; it was signed by the British and Irish (Republic of Ireland) governments and endorsed by most Northern Ireland political parties. The agreem...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay

Public Administration in Northern Ireland

A brief time line of RPA
2002 RPA was initiated
2003 RPA consultation was launched
2004 The consultation finished
2005 In august, second stage started, in September second stage closes, in November lord rooker denounced results of RPA process.
2006 June 2006 a briefing by NICVA [Northern Ireland Council for Voluntary Action], In December Gavin Boyd appointed Chief Executive Designate of Education and Skills Authority. (3)
2007 In July a review of local government's issues of RPA was launched by environmental minister.
2008 13th march Forster, environmental minister, explained the possible future shape by creating more 11 local governments keeping the already existing 26. (2)
Why is it so late to...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Children in Northern Ireland

... 9 Jan 2008 Working in Partnership Children in Northern Ireland (CiNI) Working in partnership provides an individual to find a way to meet his needs by combining and contemplating all the required services. This discussion is about Children in Northern Ireland (CiNI) which is a regional umbrella body for the children's sector in Northern Ireland. Here CiNI provides the best outcomes for children by working in partnership with all those who are committed to improving the lives of children and young people in Northern Ireland. Working together in partnership The best example of CiNI, working on integrated partnership is on Families Matter. The families matter has delivered appropriate seamless services for children and families that can...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay

Palliative Care in Northern Ireland

...PG Cert. Specialist Practice Nursing (Oncology Palliative Pathway) ONCOLOGY PALLIATIVE CARE Assignment: Semester 2009/10 Pathway: Colorectal Cancer With reference to colorectal care pathways that have been developed in Northern Ireland, critically discuss the claims that this approach has the potential to make cancer services more effective, equitable and accessible whilst promoting a patient/client-centred ethos. Introduction Worldwide, colorectal cancer accounted for 1 million new cases and 500,000 deaths in 2002. Rates of this malignancy vary by country. This malignancy is the second most frequently diagnosed in developed countries. Wide geographic variation in colorectal cancer incidence and mortality rates...
12 Pages(3000 words)Essay

A Systematic Approach to Training and Development In Organic Juice Bar

 Prior to the discussion of training needs assessment, I would discuss several issues in the human resources management process that determine why training is important.
Daft and Fitzgerald (1992) indicate that in order to manage an organization effectively in a competitive environment, planning for human resources strategy requires several factors several external factors to be considered.

1. Attract an effective workforce. This includes planning on the number of employees required, job analysis or what types of jobs should be conducted or jobs associated with the types of business, forecasting future recruitment, recruiting because good employees need to be recruited, and selecting.
As stated by Daft an...
9 Pages(2250 words)Case Study

Management and Leadership Development

In modern epoch this theory does not apply, this is due to the fact that the education standards have got tremendously advanced and now – a – days the students are not taught the basic concepts of life because they ‘should’ know them, but rather the education standards and the curriculum is created in such a manner so that it embraces every aspect of the students' psychology and make the student think and act according to the way that he/she is being taught, rather than to just make him read the books over and over again. That is, education in the present era will build the student's skills and let the students gain knowledge rather than to just have them read, give their papers, and forget all about it.
8 Pages(2000 words)Case Study

Information Systems Development Process

When a project has an obvious objective to be attained and the effort is very small, common sense and attention to what the client wants can be a suitable alternative to more complicated and formal methods. However, when the software system becomes more complex, the objectives are multiplied and start to depend on different configurations and circumstances, it becomes imperative to structure the development effort to avoid software development that does not answer the clients need, or does not have the requisite level of quality, or becomes impossible to forecast in terms of time and budget – or a combination of any of the preceding.

In situations of complexity in software development, structure methods seek to im...
13 Pages(3250 words)Assignment

The Development of a Single Global Culture Will Benefit Humankind

Social relations show spatial transformation across the world, encompassing both the hazardous and beneficial effects of globalization (Held,2000) and are marked by the intensification of communication flows (Cochrane and Paine, 2004). Such flows as an increase in broadcast activities, satellite channels, Internet, telephony, people to people contact, migration, and proliferation of transnational companies are playing an important role in the development of a single global culture. There is an emergence of diasporic and shared cultural forms across the world that are aided by increasingly porous national boundaries.

According to Cochrane and Paine (2004), the lives of people in one part of the world are affected by even...
6 Pages(1500 words)Coursework

Leadership Development Experience

The nine-month certificate program which I completed at Leadership Institute of South Puget Sound combined academic study on leadership with practical development of leadership skills. Numerous community service activities such as involvement in Employee Community Fund (ECF), being a Child haven volunteer, Christian Center volunteer and a Junior Achievement Consultant have exposed me to situations which made me apply many skills such counseling young people, and motivating them to achieve their full potential, seeking solutions with expansive thinking and application of flexibility and quick responsiveness. My involvement in Christian Center had specially sharpened my crisis management skills by participating in natural disaster m...
13 Pages(3250 words)Assignment

Holistic Approaches to Infant Development 0-8 Years

see the child as like a seed that contains all the elements to produce a fruit if given the proper amounts of nutrients from the soil and water along with sunshine and an ideal climate (Brewer, 2001). The Constructivists, founded on the works of Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky, believe that children are not passive recipients of knowledge, rather, they actively work at organizing their experience into constructing their own learning.
The Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) is a resource for early childhood care and education practitioners to support the needs of young children under their care. It sets standards for learning, development and care for children up to five years of age. EYFS provides a wide variety of information o...
18 Pages(4500 words)Term Paper

The Role of Mass Media in the Development of Aggression

Despite the fact that longitudinal studies have proven that human aggression is to some extent an unwavering trait, it is undeniable that the environment plays a big role in influence the aforementioned behavior (Slaby & Roedell, 1982). Our daily encounter with the environment is a form of socialization that is defined as the process of integrating within oneself a sense of connection to a larger social world by means of discovering, understanding and adopting the beliefs, values, and norms of culture of other people. To a certain extent, sociologists consider the mass media as a powerful socializing agent as its significance is not constrained to the content alone of the media messages. Instead, it affects how we learn a...
10 Pages(2500 words)Report

The Effect of Democracy on Chinese Development

Any country first needs to go through economic liberalization and political liberalization before finally settling into a stable democratic situation. Democracy should not at any one point be viewed as if it were socialism, but should be seen as a means of promoting economic development through accountability and protection of individual lawful rights and interests...accountability in the sense that the respective leaders are able to fight corruption, enhance social harmony, strengthen public trust and more importantly empower government institutions that are directly in touch with the people (Liu, 2008, p.1-2). Owing to the Chinese well informed and affluent society on top of having a very dynamic economy, the political change wh...
7 Pages(1750 words)Coursework

Marks and Spencer Organizational Development Process

... production and marketing techniques the company is aiming to attain world class position in the retail market field. Along with offering of highest quality products, customer servicing is also ensured by them for attaining loyal customer base. “Our brand values – quality, value, service, innovation and trust – are more important than ever. Our commitment to these values sets us apart from our competitors, and enables us to offer our customers something truly special.” (About us, 2009). An overview of Organizational Development process: According to Richard Beckhard, Organizational Development is “An effort (1) planned (2) organization-wide (3) managed from the top to (4) increase organization effectiveness and health through (5) planned...
7 Pages(1750 words)Case Study

Cognitive Development in Childhood

The significance of cognitive development among children lies in the fact that the children learn, acquire and develop cognitive and social skills along with other interpersonal skills that help them grow as competent individuals.

This paper addresses the key issues of the development of cognition in children between three to five years. In this context, various theories of cognitive development are discussed briefly along with special reference to the cognitive theory of Piaget. The paper also looks carefully into the relevance of cognitive development during this age upon the development of other areas and skills of the child.

When it comes to the cognitive development of children, the name of Piaget is und...
7 Pages(1750 words)Assignment
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Development of the Troubles in Northern Ireland for FREE!

Contact Us