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User Models and Models of Human Performance - Coursework Example

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The paper "User Models and Models of Human Performance" discusses that two different long-term memories are used in the Adaptive Control of Thought – Rational theory: declarative memory comprising facts and procedure memory comprising our knowledge of how to do things. …
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User Models and Models of Human Performance
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Download file to see previous pages Over 8000 studies on science education report existence of misconceptions or alternative conceptions, according to Duit (2007, as cited in Li & Li, 2008). Research suggests that misconceptions in students learning science may occur due to misrepresentation of objects belonging to one ontological group as members of another ontological group (e.g., students may treat heat and current as substances) (Chi 2005, as cited in Li & Li, 2008). In students learning mathematics, misconceptions occur due to inaccurate prior instructions and limited individual experience, observation, and interaction (Dole, 2000; Qian & Guzzetti, 2000, as cited in Taylor & Kowalski, 2004).
Misconceptions do not change. Literature shows that misconceptions play a strong role in students pursuing academic study — once a misconception is formed, it is not likely to change (Taylor & Kowalski, 2004). Woodward and Howard (1994) suggest that misconceptions do not go away with more practice.
Misconceptions cause students to introduce incorrect processes. According to Woodward & Howard (1994), misconceptions are fixed in the conscious process of "what to do next". For example, misconceptions in the arithmetic problem-solving process may cause the students to twist or invent an alternative, incorrect process (Woodward & Howard, 1994).
Misconceptions result in flawed knowledge. Due to the highly persistent nature of misconceptions, which may last for several years, students knowledge of the subject remains flawed (Woodward & Howard, 1994). Dole (2000) proved that stronger misconceptions are likely to reduce comprehension of new material that is contrary to the misconception (as cited in Taylor and Kowalski, 2004).
While misconceptions have been studied in some domains such as mathematics, physical sciences, biology, medicine, computer programming, and language education, evidence to suggest that effects of misconceptions are domain-specific could not be found.  ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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