Expectancy theory - Essay Example

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The theory argues that individuals will draw motivation from the belief that their decision brings desired outcome. Expectancy theory is anchored on three…
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Expectancy Theory Expectancy theory attempts to explain the reasons behind an individual opting for one behavioral option over the rest. The theory argues that individuals will draw motivation from the belief that their decision brings desired outcome. Expectancy theory is anchored on three pillars that include expectancy, instrumentality and valence.
Expectancy is the belief that efforts contribute to improved performance. The theory is observed in the belief that hard work leads to greater success (Redmond 1). Many factors influence expectancy. Firstly, availability of correct resources is crucial. Secondly, possession of skills required for a job also plays a fundamental role. Thirdly, having support required to accomplish a job contributes to the entire process.
Instrumentality is the opinion that if a person performs well, then the individual receives a value outcome as well. A number of factors influence instrumentality. Firstly, knowledge of the relationship between performance and outcome influences the process. Secondly, it is necessary to completely trust and have confidence in the authorities that issue awards. Thirdly, one should believe that the process of issuing awards is transparent (Redmond 1).
Valence refers to the value that an individual asserts to an outcome. Value associated with a specific outcome varies with individuals. For example, monetary tokens may not motivate individuals who value recognition.
A manager’s mastery of the expectancy theory is significant at the work place. It enables them to assign employees reasonably challenging tasks that inspire self-confidence and intellectual development. Instrumentality can also be employed. Managers should strive to honor promises they make to workers as it increases followers ability to trust that a manager is capable.  Instrumentality stems from the belief that performance begets promised results. Finally, valence dictates that a leader should be able to see the value of an outcome from the followers’ perspective. The process guides him on the nature of reward them in a bid to motivate them.

Works Cited
Redmond, Francis. Expectancy Theory. 15 June 2015. Web. 29 October 2014. Read More
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