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Secondly, possession of skills required for a job also plays a fundamental role. Thirdly, having support required to accomplish a job contributes to the entire process.
Instrumentality is the opinion that if a person performs well, then the individual receives a value outcome as well. A number of factors influence instrumentality. Firstly, knowledge of the relationship between performance and outcome influences the process. Secondly, it is necessary to completely trust and have confidence in the authorities that issue awards. Thirdly, one should believe that the process of issuing awards is transparent (Redmond 1).
Valence refers to the value that an individual asserts to an outcome. Value associated with a specific outcome varies with individuals. For example, monetary tokens may not motivate individuals who value recognition.
A manager’s mastery of the expectancy theory is significant at the work place. It enables them to assign employees reasonably challenging tasks that inspire self-confidence and intellectual development. Instrumentality can also be employed. Managers should strive to honor promises they make to workers as it increases followers ability to trust that a manager is capable. Instrumentality stems from the belief that performance begets promised results. Finally, valence dictates that a leader should be able to see the value of an outcome from the followers’ perspective. The process guides him on the nature of reward them in a bid to motivate
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Peoples reaction to different situations can be explicated using a number of theories such as self-efficacy theory and Vrooms expectancy theory. This journal entry focuses on Vrooms expectancy theory and how it relates to my professional life.
Vansteenkiste, Lens, Witte, and Feather (2005) in their journal wrote that expectancy value theory is a cognitive-motivational theory that relates to an individual’s level or strength of motivation. This is because a person strives to attain a certain goal with the expectations to attain the desired goal and the incentive value or valence of that goal (e.g.
A thorough understanding of the impact our mannerisms, proximity, style, and body language has on the observer can greatly aid the communicator in their effort to provide a clear and unambiguous message. Previous attempts at quantifying these messages have often found themselves grounded in a particular culture and measured from that culture's perspective, which limits the accuracy of the anticipated outcome of a cross-culture encounter.
Attitude is generally perceived as the disposition or manner of someone. Attitude shows the position of the individual towards other people’s actions, feelings or moods. Attitude indicates how the person reacts in relation to the circumstances.
The expectancy theory assumes that there is an explanation for one’s behavior to be motivated to do something.
Psychologist Victor Vroom has advanced and explained the theory of expectancy theory when he asserted that a
The author states that inn daily life, people predict certain behaviors in the process of interacting and the violation of the prediction is seen as negative or positive. This may depend on the relationship between people. In many cases, people would always predict what others think as per their behaviors.
This theory can help understand personal space violations in the first episode of The Nanny (1993). During this time, Fran Fine (Fran Drescher) is applying as a nanny for Maxwell Sheffield (Charles Shaughnessy). The scene analyzed is the one where Maxwell interviews her in the living room, as he reads her resume.
First proposed by Vroom (1964), this theory suggests that “individuals, acting through self-interest, adopt courses of action perceived as maximizing the probability of desirable outcomes for themselves. This desire to maximize self-interest provides aspiring leaders with unique opportunities to assume leadership roles by simultaneously meeting both follower needs and organizational requirements (Isaac, Zerbe & Pitt, 2001; p.212).
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