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The emotional intelligence, organizational practices of the attitude, and expectancy theory - Essay Example

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The difference between attitude and emotion is that we learn how to approach people and situations. In attitude there is deep mental activity and proactive thinking. Whereas, in emotional reactions we act rather impulsively and spontaneously…
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The emotional intelligence, organizational practices of the attitude, and expectancy theory
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Define the attitude, how is it different from the emotion. Describe two organizational practices of the attitude. Attitude is generally perceived asthe disposition or manner of someone. Attitude shows the position of the individual towards other people's actions, feelings or moods. Attitude indicates how the person reacts in relation to the circumstances. The difference between attitude and emotion is that we learn how to approach people and situations. In attitude there is deep mental activity and proactive thinking. Whereas, in emotional reactions we act rather impulsively and spontaneously. If we can control our attitude, in emotions we feel sometimes trapped in our inability to adequately evaluate the situation and adrenaline for example, force us to overeat emotionally. An affective response is an emotional response and the only factor guiding our behavior is our moment of affect. In contrast attitude is cognitive response, we are aware and can direct our behavioral tendency.

One organizational practice of attitude is positive feedback. If managers scold their employees and disintegrate their efforts, the probability that the employee will show worse results than the positive feedback increase. Positive feedback is a practice that can both positively criticize the workers, but communicate positive attitude. Positive feedback is the most productive organizational practice, because enhances employee's inventive skills and improves his self-assertion. Another attitude is to try and integrate the mission of the organization with the personal mission of the employee. This can happen if the leader successfully identifies individual life aspirations and connect them with the organizational aims. The manager should be able to closely know his subordinates and direct them towards achieving professional and personal satisfaction.
Define the emotional intelligence. As a manger how you could you exploit the emotional Intelligence on getting the intended behavior of your subordinates.
Mayer et al (1999) define emotional intelligence as "the capacity to reason about emotions, and of emotions to enhance thinking. It includes the abilities to accurately perceive emotions, to access and generate emotions so as to assist thought, to understand emotions and emotional knowledge, and to reflectively regulate emotions so as to promote emotional and intellectual growth (p. 197)." What is meant by emotional intelligence is that this is the ability to validly think and to use emotions to stimulate your thoughts. Emotional intelligence is of high importance especially performing people-oriented jobs. Thus, managers in such companies should posses EI in order to interact with clients and employees in the smoothest way. Managers can use EI and train sales how successfully to sell products applying empathic skills to seduce the customer. Leaders can also exploit their interpersonal skills to resolve a conflict situation or simple assure the employee of his professional abilities.

Manager's potential of exercising EI also indicates his leadership qualities and social and organizational responsibility. Evidence of possessing EI is to be able to organize teamwork in the company. To an extent this becomes more and more increasingly an important aspect of leadership. Thanks to EI managers can influence stress management in the company. Mediation between senior managers, employees and clients could be best assured through implications of EI at the workplace. Team leader's EI further indicate their competence and assertive skills in securing the self-discipline and motivation of their subordinates.
Discuss the Expectancy theory. How you could increase your subordinates expectancy to convert his/her performance to outcome. Give an example.
The Expectancy theory of Victor Vroom refers to motivation and management. For Vroom, the individual behavior results from conscious choices made on the bases of several alternatives. The personal choice is centered around the desire to maximize the pleasant moments and to minimize the pain. Vroom concludes that the employee's performance depend on factors such as personality, knowledge, experience and skills. The Expectancy theory claims that:
There is a positive relation between performance and efforts;
Favorable conduct will lead to receiving an award;
The rewards will gratify a significant need;
The long for satisfying the need is so persisting that the effort made by the individual is meaningful
Vroom's theory is based on three main beliefs - valence (the reward), expectancy and instrumentality. The Expectancy theory can be used to create a motivational force and to stimulate the work pleasure in employees. The following formula can be applied: Motivation=Valance X Expectancy (instrumentality). The best example that can be given is promised bonuses by managers. Management must ensure that the rewards are fulfilled and employees receive the outcome for their efforts (Fitz-enz 1999). Employees on the other hand should have the confidence that their capable of reaching the bonus goals and stick to the supervision they need. Thus, the whole expectancy theory cycle is completed when the management discovers what employees value and offer it, then apply the proper resources to direct the employees towards achieving the organizational aims and finally rewarding the employees for the reached targets. These calculated efforts made both by the managers and the employees is "expectancy theory".



Works Cited:
Fitz-enz, Jac. The ROI of Human Capital: Measuring the Economic Value of Employee Performance, Amacom, 2000

Mayer, J. D., Caruso, D., & Salovey, P. Emotional intelligence meets traditional standards for an intelligence. Intelligence, 27, 267-298. 1999. Read More
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