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The impact of globalization has led to many corporations in America to develop a need to deal with culturally diverse customers, employees, competitors, creditors, and supplies. Although the aspects of leadership are universal, there is differentiation in assessment of different…
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Management By 12 September Management The impact of globalization has led to many corporations in America to develop a need to deal with culturally diverse customers, employees, competitors, creditors, and supplies. Although the aspects of leadership are universal, there is differentiation in assessment of different leaders from different countries. The Eye of the Beholder article suggests that global managers should be given specific advice that will assist them to understand how to respond to situations in different environments. Moreover, through Global Leadership and Organizational Behaviour the Effectiveness, the article describes cultural and universal leadership aspects, how different key cultures from different countries influence leadership are also discussed. Not only does these suggestions aim at helping global executives predict and understand challenges of leadership that he or she might encounter while operating outside America, but also help them to come up with coping strategies while faced with such challenges. Different cultures from China, Egypt, Brazil and France have been used for this research since they represent various cultures and are from different cultures.
According to Javidan, Dorfman, De Luque, & House (2006, p. 69), common cultural dimensions that would help a global manager to understand and be open minded about other countries cultures, and be able to make a comparison between their own cultures and those of the host country are such attributes like performance orientation. Performance orientation involves giving culturally appropriate rewards and encouragement for better performance. How people relate with each other is also important. Some of the countries are less assertive while others are highly assertive. Some countries also have practices that are highly future-oriented while others are not. Some countries rank high in human orientation while others rank low. Other attributes are in-group collectivism, power distance, gender egalitarians, and uncertainty avoidance (Javidan et al. 2006).
The variation in leadership from different cultures is determined by cultural leadership beliefs held by members of different countries. The research further argues that the content and structure of these systems of beliefs can be shared in common cultures among individuals. Therefore, they came up with culturally endorsed implicit leadership theory that helped them to identify different leadership qualities among different nations. These qualities are team oriented, charismatic, Participative, human oriented, self-protective and autonomous (Javidan et al. 2006, p. 73).
Attributes that are commonly desirable and undesirable in almost all cultures were researched, and they are motivational, dynamic, and decisive. Undesirable attributes are leaders who are ruthless, irritable, ethnocentric, and loners (Javidan et al. 2006, p. 75). These attributes influence effectiveness of leadership.
Saudi Arabia style of leadership is run along hierarchical lines that are very stable. Managers are always instructional in their management style. The managers make decisions on their own then pass them to subordinates to implement. Therefore, Saudi Arabia can be ranked lowest in team-oriented leadership compared to America since group members in America are involved in decision making. Participative leadership can be ranked medium, but low compared to other countries absolute ranks and scores (Javidan et al. 2006). This is because employees have the belief that leaders lead, and it is the responsibility of workers to follow, so some activities are left undone if the leader does not approve them. The position of a leader is also respected, and subordinates are required to reflect extreme level of difference.
Human orientation would score high, but equals scores from other countries. The reason behind this is that leaders in Saudi Arabia are a bit compassionate and supportive to their employees. Leaders also are somehow self ­­-centred because employees are required to show high levels of respect and difference to their bosses not only at the working place, but also to his age, class connection, and family status.
Javidan, M, & Dorfman, P, W, & De Luque, M, S, House, R, J, 2006, In the Eye of the Beholder: Cross Cultural Lessons in Leadership from Project GLOBE, Academy of management Perspectives, 20(1), 67-90. Read More
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