Economic Demography - Economic on Fertility 1. In the paper, “The Quiet Revolution That Transformed Women’s Employment, Education, and Family,” Claudia Goldin describes the transformation of women from just a homemaker to an independent career woman across the evolutionary and revolutionary phases starting in early nineteenth century to late 70s…
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Since the survey tracked their aspirations over the period of 35 years, it was seen that the participation rate amongst young women in human capital increased to 0.75-0.80. The survey also observed that a higher number of young women continued their education and graduated that in early 60s. During 1970s-80s, there was a remarkable decrease in the gap between boys and girls academic participation in maths and science courses at schools and colleges. In fact by late 40s, there was negligible difference between male and female college attendance and graduation rates. The median age of marriage for women increased by 2.5 years in early 70s-80s indicating that women were giving more serious thought to their higher education and building a career. 2. According to the Human capital theory, education, coaching or training increases the efficiency of workers by imparting valuable knowledge and skills, therefore raising employees’ future income by increasing their lifetime earnings. It hypothesizes that spending on education is expensive, and should be taken as an investment since it is commenced with a view to raise personal incomes. In part a, we discussed the evidence of expanding horizon amongst women in the late 70s era leading to a rise in their educational awareness and participation. As more and more women evolved from managing their homes to doing job driven by monetary reasons to finally building a career, the role of on-the-job trainings would also increase. Vocational training would ensure that women are acquiring the skill sets to perform their duties to their utmost levels. This is of course linked with the rising number of female workforce since 1970s. With higher investments in education and vocational trainings, higher penetration in the job market, it is evident that the earnings for female labor force will increase over the period of time. 3. In the write-up “Intra- and inter-national imbalances and migration”, Michael Teitelbaum describes the similarities and differences between the historical East-West migration wave and the current South-North wave that have attracted a lot of scholarly attention. The author reflects that the movement of people between countries and different lands is compelled by the collaboration of two factors: the negative and tough actuality of life at home (usually due to political violence and instability, social insecurity, economic challenges, or a combination of these) and the perception that a better life exists somewhere else. International migration stimulated by a failure of social welfare or internal political unrest has become more common over the past decades and would resume to drive the migration movement of many individuals. The author suggest that as a result, international migrations such as east-west and north-south, the most expected economic response to population explosions and deteriorating living conditions in developing nations, is the major challenge to worldwide stability well into the twenty-first century. The similarities between east-west and north-south mass migrations also dwell on the fact that the aspects of hiring “cheap labor” for labor-intensive industries and services drove both. 4. The fundamental principle underlying most microeconomic models of migration policymaking is that ‘a person migrates in the expectation of being better off by doing so’ (DaVanzo). This premise is similar to the evidence found
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