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Answer for exam question - Essay Example

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Number: Course: Tutor: Date: Question 1A: analysis of African culture using Hofstede theory of culture Introduction Africa is incredibly diverse, and the continent has numerous countries. Each country in Africa has an array of tribes, who have their unique language and culture…
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Download file to see previous pages African culture characteristics Edoho (2001) asserts that the African culture is almost opposite to that of America. In his comparison between the two cultures, Edoho found that the Africa culture exhibits the following characteristics; High power distance, Collectivism, Moderately feminine and Moderate to low uncertainty avoidance. According to Edoho, America has an individualism culture, low power distance, masculine and low uncertainty avoidance. Individualism refers to a cultural state of affairs where individuals’ ties between individuals are loose. Although the extent of collectivism varies within countries, Africa countries are generally collectivist in nature. With regards to masculinity v femininity, African countries are moderately feminine. Uncertainty avoidance is the degree to which members of a culture feel threatened by uncertain circumstances. African culture is generally low on uncertainty avoidance. African culture is characterized by high power distance. The high power distance also gives rise to high social inequality, where subordinates highly depend on managers (French, 2010). A person’s standing in the society depends on the age and social status. In addition, hierarchies, formality and titles are highly regarded in African culture. Africans place value on personal connections, trust, friendship and personal relationships. In addition to valuing relationships, Africans value groups such as clans and ethnic group rather than an individual. This results in the prominence of working for the benefit of the whole instead of an individual. Tradition and honor are highly regarded and the culture endeavors to safeguard the loss of honor. In terms of male domination, African societies are male dominated, although most Africans tend to be modest. While dealing with uncertainty, the African culture stresses on harmony rather than conflict. Africans resort to harmony as they do not feel threatened by unknown circumstances. Africans have a more flexible and relaxed attitude towards time. This flexibility of time in the African culture is unofficially referred to as the “African time”. Finally, the African culture is characterized by high content where decisions depend on the external environment, circumstances and non-verbal signs. Conclusion In conclusion, the African nature exhibits most of the attributes put forward by Hofstede. Among the most prominent features in the African culture are high power distance, low uncertainty avoidance, collectivism and moderate femininity. High distance in African countries considers inequality as essential and that everyone has a place. Organizational values in African countries hold that most people should be dependent on the leader. People holding social positions are perceived as privileged and people work towards protecting their titles and prestige. As such, only related relationships are accepted in organization as subordinates consider themselves as different from their bosses. Q 1 B: how understanding cultural theories can help international managers to decide on the most suitable management style. Introduction The management of human resources is collective with regard to policies, processes and strategies. Managing and developing human resources in an international setting is increasingly acknowledged as a central challenge, especially for ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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