Russian Nationalism in 19-20 centuries
Russian nationalism as the direction of political thought, was created in the end of the19th –the beginning of the 20th century. Certainly, it is not right to deny the presence of national feeling in Russians much earlier. The division into “our” and “other” on the basis of an ethnic origin is traced in the Russian history since chronicles, long before the origin of the Russian parliamentarism, the French revolution and the French concept of the civil (not ethnic) nation. However, the Russian national idea became the political direction on the general wave of "politicization" at a turn of one before the last century of the Russian Empire (Duncan).
Actually, nationalism is a form of public consciousness, which transforms private experience of patriotic feeling into rational forms of political action, including ideology and organizational construction. These forms are everywhere in the world. But in Europe they have a number of peculiarities, because the theoretical, philosophical base of nationalism is stronger, deeper and implanted in political culture. In Russia this rooting is weaker as Russian patriotic feelings were expressed not in philosophy, not in the political theory, but in literature, art. According to Berdyaev, “The Russian people did not achieve their ancient dream of Moscow, the Third Rome. The ecclesiastical schism of the 17th century revealed that the muscovite tsardom is not the third Rome. The messianic idea of the Russian people assumed