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According to Long, there are many factors that act as sources of power of an administrator, and he claimed that legal authority and budget allocations are not sufficient bases of administration. More so, he claimed that the top hierarchy while structuring administration based on power is not relevant claiming that hierarchical power flows downwards. Long stated that “the political power flows in from organizational sides and also flows up the organization to the center from the constituent parts” (Stillman 2010, p.107). Therefore, long provided a structure of interests, which to him was an essential factor in determining the scope of possible action.
Notably, the administrative power and political power greatly differ; first, the administrative power can be referred to as the ability to cover up the fund embezzlement whereas political power is the ability to order a cover up of embezzled fund. In administration, the power is limited whereas in politics, the power is unlimited due to the decision made by the majority via elections. There are many problems that public administrators face today, some of which include hierarchical order and the flow of power, coping with the expectations of the public, achieving technical competence, and behaving ethically among others. As long stated, the top hierarchy of the administration is not relevant but in reality, power and hierarchical positions truly affects public administrators. Many scholars have argued that power is the most important element in administration and this power is a significant challenge faced by administrators. Secondly, public administrators have trouble in trying to effectively satisfy public interest and coping up with the expectations of the public. In addition, public administrators always focus on how to effectively perform the tasks assigned to them by supervisors and
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He was biased towards legislative process that is open and did not favor much the constitutional forms. Both Newt Gingrich and Wilson stressed that political parties, Congress and ideas must be given prominence in American Politics (Connelly, 2010). His influence was great and thoughts about Congressional Government were relevant and used by many reformers (Connelly, 2010), however Connelly (2010) argued that Woodrow Wilson’s project to change how the legislative and executive branch governed was doomed to failure.
In my view, presence of a good working relationship between employees is essential. The reason is that when employees have a good working relationship between them, they show good job performances. An employee needs a
Sebastian. He knew what he felt was wrong; as it was a societal inviolable, therefore, he tried to cover it up by acting in a masculine manner, which became an essential part of him. To survive in Post-war Japan, Koshan had to live behind a
In terms of councils, both were meant to administer decisions for the assembly. Contrastingly, while the Athenian council consisted of five hundred individuals above 30 years, the Spartan government only required 28 members. The
The aim of the negotiation is devoid the need to establish a long-term relationship between the two parties. There is a mistrust created by the parties on each other because they tend to use tricks to obtain