The author, Ira Katznelson, in his book, When Affirmative Action Was White writes about how government programs in the 1930s and 1940s, favored the white race while discriminated against the black race. Katznelson asserts that racial discrimination and oppression took root after…
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Katznelson points out that African Americans were legally excluded from government programs such as; unemployment insurance, social security, grants, assistance of elderly and poor. The blacks were segregated through; theological justification, harsh enforcement, economic compulsions, political institutions, social conventions, and racist ideas (Katznelson 5). The age of whiteness was marked by restricting Black Americans from crossing the set social boundaries, and this was implemented by the police state that had the authority. In addition, the author mentions that; although, Europeans and African Americas fought alongside each other at the Second World War, some eastern and southern Europeans, through the white affirmative action, got full rights at the expense of African Americans. This paper discusses the meaning of “white affirmative action” from Katznelson’s point of view, and address how U.S. government policies affect non-white Americans.
When Katznelson talks of “white affirmative action”, he refers to the way in which various government programs, which were constituted in the 1930s and 1940s segregated the blacks. The authority of white affirmative action was prescribed in the constitution, society, and peoples’ minds. In his context, when the government programs segregated the blacks, they worked on the opposite direction and favored the whites. Therefore, the government programs became affirmative actions for the white race. White affirmative action was seen when the government used; the Fair Labor Standards Act (1938) and National Labor Relations Act (1935) to formulate worker reform, which would result in getting rid of domestic, as well as, agricultural labor (Katznelson 62). In this manner, Black Americans became segregated in that they could not find employment. The white affirmative action within the U.S. government was propelled by
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The 1964 established the Civil Rights act which abolished discrimination in the workforce. Since the ending of WWII, minorities and women were continuously being denied of opportunities that could further enhance their growth.
Affirmative action has been developed in order to ensure equal status on the basis of race, creed, color and national origin (Cohen, and Sterba 12). According to Beckwith and Jones (11) “Affirmative action policies take a large variety of forms, ranging from making recruiting efforts in ethnic communities to mandating a specific number of positions be set aside for minorities.” Mangum defines affirmative action as a multipurpose term.
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This paper intends to research the history of affirmative action policies for both graduate and undergraduate programs in the United States, as well as develop an argumentative paper drawing a conclusion about the constitutionality of these policies. Factiously, America is a country with many people of different ethnic, racial, and other diverse backgrounds1.
The first person to use the term Affirmative action was the then president, John Kennedy, who in nineteen sixty-one, in an executive order gave a directive to government contractors that they were to take affirmative action. This was to make sure that these contractors would ensure that all those who had made applications were given employment and that all employees were to be treated equally without any regard to their race, religion, or the color of their skin (Fryer & Glenn 147).
Affirmative Action. Affirmative action is still needed in 2012. There are discrepancies between the white males versus women and nonwhite males in terms of equal rights to education and higher paying jobs. The research delves into the hiring of minorities and accepting minorities in school programs.
Representatives of minorities and women were segregated into low paid and less perspective jobs, while some minorities - for example Chinese or Korean, were legally forbidden to own land. Until the second decade of the last century, even white women were legally deprived of the political rights and in many states they could not enter certain occupational fields, such as law, journalism, and medicine.
It also applies to the awarding of other social benefits for these groups. The problem is that some people consider it to be reverse discrimination (Bardach, 2005; Holzer and Neumark, 2000 and Holzer and Neumark, 2006).The Civil Rights Act of 1964 started the whole push towards affirmative action.
hieving full and fair participation of all members of the society, who were initially not fully utilized in the work place, and negatively impacted by the policies (Schmidt, 2008).
According to Schmidt (2008), equal opportunities in employment give a guide on employment of
and ideologies dominate the scenario, the medieval era was an age where the rhetoricists saw a plunge from monastic philosophical tendencies towards a more rational thought process. Not only was there a lot of confusion and dilemmas dominating the intellectual space, but also a
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