Formed in 1991, The Glass Ceiling Commission issued a report in 1995 unequivocally demonstrating inequality for women in the U.S. workplace (Russell, 1995, p. 8). A 'glass ceiling' is a metaphor used to describe an invisible barrier to growth or advancement…
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565) and yet just over thirty-years later, The Glass Ceiling Commission reported that equity was far from being achieved. The report noted that women continued to earn proportionately less than men for the same work or that there was a wage-gap, and that they made up only a very small fraction of the upper-level positions in U.S. Organizations (Russell, 1995, p. 8). Hence, where there are no visible or concrete (legal) barriers for advancement, the barriers are invisible or made of glass. The following will examine the barriers faced by women in the workplace, and this essay will try and make the transparent visible. It will be argued that inequality can only be explained by how the dominant class in society legitimates and perpetuates power, and how the distinction between gender and sex is important to understanding the actual barriers to equality. In order to arrive at understanding the invisible or glass barriers for women in the workplace, a brief overview of some of the legal obstacles will first be presented. While it is true that many barriers remain for women in the workplace, it can also be held that the twentieth-century was marked by a significant amount of progress. At the turn of the twentieth century, many obstacles existed for women in the workforce. ...
154). However, as science progressed this form of legitimation proved untenable. Likewise, attitudes changed significantly, and access to higher education meant access to better positions in the workforce. As with progress in education, likewise with the the percentage of women in the workforce in the twentieth century. One of the main contributing causes for this change, are the two World Wars (1914-1918 and 1939-1945) where women were needed to work in the place of men who were participating military action. For example, in 1900 only 5.6 % of all women worked outside of the home, and following the First World War this percentage rose to 23.6 % (Webb, 2010, pp. 1-2). During the era of the Great Depression after the stock market crash of 1929, there was a public sentiment that maintained that the few jobs that existed ought to be given to men, but again, the Second World War changed the workforce demographics again and between 1942 and 1945 over 6.5 million women entered the workforce in the U.S. (Webb, 2010, p. 2). And, while attitudes were still negative about women in the workforce, there were many public campaigns that promoted it because of the necessity of the War. This had a significant impact on changing attitudes toward women in the workforce, and as with the period following the First World War, the period following the Second was marked by a higher percentage of women who remained employed outside of the home (Webb, 2010, p. 2). Along with the barrier's of access to education and the workforce, a number of legal or legislative changes improved egalitarian conditions in the twentieth-century. The right to vote for women largely came about through the lobbying and
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Despite being fully aware of gender issues and its implications, we have still been unable to eliminate gender inequality from our modern society. Unfortunately, sexism whether juvenile or benevolent still remains one of the major integrated problems of today’s technologically and economically advanced world.
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This research paper explores the perceptions of women workers of the realities in the workplace regarding gender equality. It will attempt to investigate the grievances and fulfillments of women regarding their current jobs, pay and career advancement and probe the psychological and emotional effects these have on their job performance.
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The individual’s ability always needs to be judged on his way of thinking and above all thinking rationally. In this era of globalization and advanced education the literacy rates of men and women appear to b leveled.
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